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Human Organs

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by

Jessica Zivkovich

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of Human Organs

Human Organs
Standards
I will be able to identify the organs in the human body and describe their functions, including the skin, brain, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, muscles, and skeleton, reproductive organs, kidneys, bladder, and sensory organs. SC.5.L.14.1.
I can...
Identify the major organs of the human body and their functions.
Vocabulary
Organ
a group of different tissues
that work together to
perform a certain
function in an organism.
Function
the "job" that a body part does in an organism
Skin
Let's Activate!
How Much Do You Already Know?

http://sciencenetlinks.com/media/filer/2011/10/13/allsystems.swf
System:
Integumentary
Location:
all over!
Size:
it is your largest organ!
Parts:
Epidermis, Dermis, Hypodermis
Cool!
Your body produces a new epidermis every 30 days!
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your skin protects your body from damage, from infections, and from drying out.

Also, skin helps regulate, or control, your body's temperature. If your body gets too hot, the blood vessels will widen to release heat. If your body gets too cold, the blood vessels will become narrow to keep heat in.
Brain
System:
Nervous
Location:
inside your skull
Size:
of a small cauliflower
Parts:
cerebrum, brain stem, diencephalon, & cerebellum
Cool!
Your brain is the fattest organ in your body!
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your brain controls your body and houses your mind.

Specifically, it controls your:

Speech Coordination
Movements Balance
Thoughts Posture
Emotions Thirst/Hunger
Sensations Sleep
Temperature Memory
Pain ...and more!
Let's see how your brain handles some optical illusions!
Open
Illusion DataPoint
on Desktop
How Much Surface Area Does Your Skin Take Up?
Heart
System:
Cardiovascular
Location:
between the lungs
Size:
of a grapefruit
Parts:
atria, ventricles, valves, veins, arteries, aorta
Cool!
Every day, the heart creates enough energy to drive a truck 20 miles. In a lifetime, that is equivalent to driving to the moon and back.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your heart is one of the most important organs in your body.

Its main job is to pump oxygen-rich blood throughout your body and oxygen-poor blood to your lungs.

The heart also circulates blood throughout your body and gives you energy.
What's your heart rate?
Heart Diagram
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/heart-article.html
Lungs
System:
Respiratory
Location:
in your chest, inside your ribcage
Size:
large
Parts:
left lung (smaller), right lung, bronchi, alveoli
Cool!
The word "lung" came from the older English word “lunge” which it means “light."
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your lungs are responsible for delivering oxygen
to
your blood and removing carbon dioxide
from
your blood.

Your lungs work together with your nose, mouth, and trachea to allow you to breathe.

Your nervous system (which includes your brain) helps you to control your breathing.
Balloon Lung Mini-Experiment
Stomach
System:
Digestive
Location:
between the esophagus & small intestine
Size:
widest part of digestive system
Parts:
esophagus, pylorus, duodenum, mucus membrane
Cool!
Your stomach produces a new layer of mucus every two weeks so it doesn’t digest itself.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your stomach is best at storing food, breaking food down and mixing it with juices secreted by your stomach lining.

When your stomach breaks food down, it releases chemical energy.

After your food is broken down, the stomach releases it into your small intestine. This process takes about 4-6 hours.
Liver
System:
Digestive
Location:
under your diaphragm, more to the right side of your body
Size:
largest internal organ
Parts: bile duct, gallbladder, hepatic vein, hepatic artery
Cool!
By the time you're an adult, your liver will be about the size of a football.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS

Your liver is important because it cleans your blood of toxins. It allows your body to take in the "good stuff" and makes sure that it gets rid of bad stuff.

It also produces an important digestive liquid called bile.

In addition, it stores energy in the form of a sugar called glycogen.

Let's watch how to make a liver explode!
Intestines
System:
Digestive
Location:
abdomen (large intestine surrounds small intestine)
Size:
5 meters long (small); 1.5 meters long (large)
Cool!
The small intestine is actually longer than the large intestine! It's called "small" because it has a small diameter.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS

Your small intestine is responsible for the chemically digesting your food and absorbing nutrients into your blood.

Your large intestine's job is to convert food waste products into faeces (and yes, by faeces, I mean poop).

Let's make a small intestine!
Pancreas
System:
Digestive
Location:
behind the stomach and level with the top of the small intestine
Size:
about 6 inches long
Parts:
pancreatic duct, duodenum
Cool!
Name comes from the Greek word "pankreas." Pan means "all," and "kreas" means meat. So, pancreas really means "all meat." Many parts of the world eat the pancreas of animals, and it is considered a very rich food.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
The pancreas' main job is to control your blood sugar levels. It does this by secreting (or releasing) digestive enzymes and hormones.

(An enzyme is a substance produced by a living thing that acts in such a way that it bring about a specific biochemical reaction.)

Your pancreas produces insulin and glucagon, two hormones that control sugar levels in your blood. Those hormones are secreted from your pancreas directly into your blood.
Don't take your pancreas for granted!
Muscles
System:
Muscular
Location:
more than 600 muscles are found everywhere throughout your body, under our skin and covering our bones
Types:
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Parts:
many!... including biceps, abdominal muscles, quadriceps, etc
Cool!
It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
All movement in the body is controlled by muscles. Some muscles work without us thinking, like our heart beating, while other muscles are controlled by our thoughts and allow us to do stuff and move around.

Inside the muscles there are nerves which carry messages to and from the brain. There are also blood vessels, which carry the energy that your muscles need and also carry away waste that your muscles have finished with.
Muscle Mini-Experiment:
Which one is heavier?
Skeleton
System:
Skeletal
Location:
found all throughout your body, holding it up!
How Many?
206 (adult skeleton)
Types:
many!... including femur, phalanges, ribs, tibia, ulna, etc
Cool!
The femur, or thighbone, is the longest and strongest bone of the human skeleton.
The stapes, in the middle ear, is the smallest and lightest bone of the human skeleton.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your bones do a lot of things for your body!

First, they give your body structure. Imagine what you'd like like with no bones to hold you together!

They also let you move in many ways. The place where 2 bones meet is called a joint. Feel the joint at your elbow! See how it allows your arm to move?

Finally, bones protect your vital (important) organs. For example, your ribcage protects your heart, lungs and much more.


Meet Keith the Skeleton!
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/appliedanatomy/skeleton/2_anatomy_skeleton_act.shtml
Kidneys
System:
Urinary
Location:
at the bottom of your ribcage and towards the back of your body
Size:
about the size of your fist
Parts:
cortex, pelvis, medulla, etc
Cool!
You can survive with just one kidney.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your kidneys are responsible for making urine from waste products and excess water found in your blood.

For your body to work properly, the conditions inside it, such as water, pH and salt levels, need to be kept constant, or normal. Your kidneys play a vital role in keeping your blood composition constant.

In 24 hours, your kidneys filter around 150 liters of blood and produce roughly 1.5 liters of urine.

Kidneys also control your blood pressure.
Mini-Experiment: How is a kidney like a filter?
Bladder
System:
Urinary
Location:
behind your pelvic bone
Size:
can hold 400-600 mL of urine
Parts:
bladder muscle, sphincter muscles, ureters, urthra
Cool!
The bladder is like a balloon and swells into a round shape when full and gets smaller when empty.
FACTS
FUNCTIONS
Your bladder's main function is to store urine.

Urine, made in your kidneys, is transported to your bladder via two narrow tubes known as ureters. As your bladder fills up with urine it stretches.

An adult bladder can usually hold about a pint of fluid comfortably. It can hold more, but as it gets fuller it can be painful.

When your bladder stretches beyond a certain point, nerves in the bladder wall send a message to your brain telling it that your bladder is getting full and needs to be emptied.
Urinary System Video!
http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/USmovie.html
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/101-videos/human-body-sci
and
Full transcript