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As we go on to the further enrichment and development of our nation, it is important for us to recall the past of our administration and the events that led us to this path. This is how we can improve further the administration that govern and represent us Filipinos. We need to know what happened in the past so that mistakes happened during that time would be prevented in the present, or somehow, in the near future.
Student Power and Demonstrations
Roused to action by the deplorable condition of the country, students of colleges and universities went on the warpath. They rose violent demonstrations in the streets of Manila in the towns and provinces.
First Quarter Storm
A good government without dirty politics
Social justice through
To lower the prices
of prime commodities
and job for the jobless
Improvement of the educational system
A new constitution to
replace the obsolete
The Call for a New Constitution
Filipinos called for a
movement to change
Constitution of 1935
March 16, 1967,
the Congress made a
Joint Resolution No.2
August 24, 1970,
Marcos signed the
R.A. 6132 or the
“1970 Constitutional Act”
This law provided an
election of the delegates
to the Constitutional Convention
The Constitutional Convention
June 1, 1971,
The Constitutional Convention
met in inaugural session
at the Manila Hotel
November 10, 1970,
entered the electoral
race, 320 delegates to
the Constitutional Convention
It was formally opened by Sen. Pres. Gil j. Puyat and House Speaker Comelio Villareal
The first Convention President
elected was former Philippine
president Carlos P. Garcia,
he died on June 14, 1971 because of heart attack
He was succeeded by Diosdado Macapagal, a former President of the Philippine Republic
CPP established the
New People’s Army (NPA)
lead by Bernabe "Kumander Dante" Buscayno.
Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP)
Communist leaders were
split into two.
The Maoist faction
After the visit of Pope Paul VI the condition worsened. The soaring wave of lawlessness reached its peak in the so-called "Plaza Miranda Massacre" on the evening of August 21, 1971, during the proclamation rally of the Liberal Party candidates for the local election scheduled on November 8, 1971. two grenades were hurled by unidentified persons on the platform of which explosions killed 8 persons and injured 120.
Ninoy Aquino, who was expected in the occasion, was not present. Marcos threw accusation of the crime on the NPA and Aquino.
SUSPENSION OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
President Marcos immediately issued Proclamation No. 880 suspending the privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus
This was also suspended before by Gov. Gen. Luke E, Wright on January 31, 1905 in order to suppress the widespread anti-American activities
October 22, 1950, President Quirino also suspended the writ to combat the HUK rebellion
Despite the suspension of the privilege of Writ of Habeas Corpus, the campaign for the election of eight national senators and about 15,000 local officials continued
The local elections were held on November 8, 1975
In 1971, bombing were intensified, targeting public and private buildings and other properties, civilians.
January 11, 1972 the President restored the privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus
That evening an attempt of an assassination against the Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile, planting a bomb on his car was frustrated. The car exploded without Enrile inside
Marcos stated, “there is throughout the land a state of anarchy and lawlessness, chaos and disorder, turmoil and destruction of a magnitude equivalent to an actual war between the forces of our duly constituted government and the New people’s Army...and that public order and safety, and security of the nation demand that immediate, swift, decisive and effective action be taken...”.
With these words, President Marcos, on September 23, 1972, appeared on nationwide radio and television to announce his proclamation placing the entire Philippines under Martial Law
This was signed by Pres. Marcos earlier on September 21, 1972
Media, political opposition were arrested
THE MARTIAL LAW YEARS
The Marcos initiated diplomatic relations with communist states
On October of 1974, The Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas signed a
memorandum of Cooperation
with the administration
On October 16-17, 1976 majority of barangay voters approved that martial Law should be continued
December 23, 1976, MNLF freedom fighters forced the Government to sign a peace contract known as the
Mindanao Independence Movement (MNM) and MNLF soon clashed with the authorities resulting to casualties on both parties and civilian casualties also.
On September 26, 1972 Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. 2 which declared the country under land reform program
THE FOURTH REPUBLIC
After the end of more than eight years of Martial Law, the government of the Philippine Republic changed drastically from the intended parliamentary democracy to a mixed presidential parliamentary dictatorship under President Marcos. Later changes in 1981 gave birth to what President Marcos called as the “New Society,” or historically speaking, the Fourth Republic of the Philippines.
On June 16, 1981, right after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. As expected, President Marcos ran and won a massive victory over the other “almost unknown” candidates –Alejo Santos of a Nationalista Party faction and Cebu Assemblyman Bartolome Cabangbang of the Federal Party. The major opposition parties, United Democratic Opposition (UNIDO), a coalition of opposition parties under Salvador Laurel and Laban, boycotted the elections. Marcos won an overwhelming 88% of the votes, the highest in the Philippines electoral history.
On June 30 1981, President Marcos was inaugurated in grandiose ceremonies and proclaimed the “birth of a new Republic.”This new Republic would last for a little less than five years.
THE FIRST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino was born in Conception, Tarlac to a prosperous family of hacienderos. His father, Benigno Aquino, Sr. was a prominent official in Quezon’s Commonwealth and during the World War II under the Japanese-organized government of Jose P. Laurel. Ninoy last his father while a teen amid rumor of collaboration with the Japanese during the occupation. At age 17, he was the youngest war correspondent with the cover the Korean War for the Manila Times of Joaquin “Chino” Roces. As a journalist, he received a Philippine Legion of Honor award from President Quirino at age 18.
At 21, he became an adviser to defense secretary Ramon Magsaysay. Ninoy took law at U.P. but the returned to journalism. In early 1954, he was Magsaysay’s emissary to Luis Taruc, who surrendered unconditionally after some negotiations. At 22 he was mayor of Conception in 1955. He married Corazon Conjuangco and had 5 children; Ma. Elena Aurora Corazon, (Philippine President) Benigno “Noynoy” III Victoria Elisa, and (actress) Kris. He became vice-governor and the governor a Tarlac in 1961, and later as Liberal Party secretary general in 1966. In 1967, he was the youngest senator in the country’s history at age 34. He was the only Liberal Party “surviror” who made it to the senate, where he was singled out by President Marcos as his greatest nemesis. In 1968 , he warned Marcos for creating” a Garrison State” by “ballooning” the armed forces budget”, maintaining “overstaying generals” and “militarizing our civilian government offices”.
Aquino continued to criticize the Marcos regime. On February 10, 1969, he delivered his most celebrated speech, entitled “A Pantheon for Imelda”. He exposed the first lady’s first extravagant project, the 50 million Cultural Center, calling it “a monument to shame”. The outraged Marcos called Aquino “a congenital liar” Soon, the “fiscalization” tactics of Aquino became his signature trademark.
Aquino considered the highest office in the land, the presidency. Surveys showed that he was number one choice among Filipino, since President Marcos, by law, was prohibited to serve another term. However, the Plaza Miranda bombing on August 21, 1971, created a new path of destiny for Aquino. Although suspicions pointed to the Nacionalistas (the party of Marcos) which was the arch rival of the Liberal, Marcos allies insinuated that, perhaps, Aquino might have been involved so to eliminate his potential rivals within the party. Later, the Marcos government presented “evidence” of the bombings as well as an alleged threat of a communist insurgency, suggesting that the bombings to be the handiwork of the New People’s Army.
When Marcos proclaimed Martial Law in 1972, Aquino was one of the first arrested and imprisoned on charges of murder, illegal possession of firearms and subversion. On April 4, 1975, Aquino announced that he was going on a hunger strike, a fast to the death to protest the injustices of his military trial. On May 13, 1975, the 40th day, upon the request of his family and friends, he finally ended hid fasting, confident that he had made a symbolic gesture. On November 25, 1977, the government –controlled Military tribunal found Aquino ( along with Bernabe Buscayno and renegade soldier Victor Corpuz) guilty of all charges and was sentenced to death by firing squad. Of course, this was never implemented.
In 1978, from his prison cell, Ninoy was allowed take part in the elections for the Interim Batasang Pambansa. Although his friends, former Senators Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga boycotted the elections, Aquino organized and ran with 21 candidates in Metro Manila. Thus Political party”Lakas ng Bayan” (People Power) was born. Its acronym was “LABAN”. People believed that his party would win overwhelmingly in an honest election.
Aquino was operated in Dallas, Texas. He made quickly recovery and traveled already only after a month. Marcos extended his exile for medical reasons. Eventually Aquino renounced his two covenants with Imelda “because of the dictates of higher national interest”. After all, Ninoy added, “ a pact with the devil is no pact at all”. Aquino spent three years in self-exile, setting up a house with Cory and their kids in Newton, Boston, Massachusetts
Aquino urged Marcos to “heed the voice of conscience and moderation “, and declared his willingness to lay his own life on the line
Warned that he will either be imprisoned or killed, he answered, “if it’s my fate to die by an assassin’s, so bet it”. Aquino insisted it was his natural right to return to his homeland, and no government can stop him. He left Logan International Airport on August 13, 1983, took a route home from Boston via Los Angeles, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taipei, before heading towards Manila.
On August 21, 1983 former Senator Benigno “Ninoy” S. Aquino Jr. returned to the Philippines. It would have been convenient for the Marcos government if Aquino had stayed out of politics, however, Ninoy asserted his willingness to suffer the consequences declaring, “The Filipino is worth dying for”.
The country wept out with the death of Ninoy. Soon, the phrase” Ninoy, Di ka Nag-iisa” became very popular along with the “yellow ribbon” and the other yellow items which commemorated him. Ninoy’s body was displayed to the republic at the Santos Domingo Church in Quezon City where multitudes lined up daily to visit him. His funeral from the longest and largest in Philippines history as its was attended by some two million people from all walks of life.
THE AQUINO ASSASSINATION
INVESTIGATION AND TRIAL
OF THE AQUINO MURDER
Realizing that the people were enraged by the brutal and unjust murder of Senator Aquino, and that an investigation was a must, Marcos, immediately created a fact finding commission under Chief Justice Enrique Fernando to investigate on the “Aquino-Galman Double Murder” case. The commission only had two sittings and was disbanded at once due to heavy public criticisms. On October 14, 1983, President Marcos created a five- man independent board of inquiry to investigate on the Aquino murder. This would be known as the Agrava Fact-Finding Board headed by Justice Corazon Agrava.
Before the Agrava board started its investigation Marcos made a statement changing the communist, particularly under the order Rodolfo Salas, for the killing of Senator Aquino.
The report submitted by Chairman Agrava implicated seven military men headed by Brig. Gen. Luther Custodio, chief of the AVSECOM. The four other members, however, implicated twenty-five military men headed Gen. Fabian Ver (AFP chief of staff), major Gen. Prospero Olivas (PC/Metropolitan Command) and Gen Custodio. The reports were submitted to the Sandiganbayan on February 1985, for a trial president by Justice Manuel Pamaran.
On August 13, 1985, fifty-six assemblymen signed a resolution calling for the impeachment of President Marcos for graft and corruption, culpable violation of the Constitution, gross violation of his oath of office and other high crimes.
END OF PRESENTATION
, Stephanie Camille
Mr. Roger Trajano