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The Nicaraguan Revolution 1976- 1979

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Shelby Wilson

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of The Nicaraguan Revolution 1976- 1979

This is Nicaragua. You are here. The Nicaraguan Revolution
1976-1979 Managua Mission Viejo in the 1970's: Nicaragua in the 1970's: THE WORLD The End. Background:
the Somoza Dictatorship Ruling family from 1936-1937
Puppet-presidents between family members
Anastasio Somoza Garcia, Luis Somoza Debayle, & Anastasio Somoza Debayle Came into power:
Somoza controlled the Nicaraguan National Guard
President Sacasa backed by US in hunt for Augusto Cesar Sandino (rebel communist leader)
Before US removed troops in 1933, trained National Guard to take over
With US gone, Sandino came out of hiding and was offered amnesty by Sacasa
Sandino was assassinated by Nat'l Guard under Somoza's order
Also assassinated moderate party leader Pedro Joaquin Chamarro, leaving Somoza to take power at next election Rise of the Sandinstas Radical opposition to Somoza formed in 1961
named for Augusto Sandino
official title: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN)
originated from various opposition groups, youth, and students
founded by Carlos Fonseca, Silvio Mayorga, Tomás Borge
Managua Earthquake in 1972 led to greater FSLN guerilla resistance CAUSE: Abuses of the Somozas Humanitatrian abuses:
kept people illiterate
"Since the nicaraguan people are no more than oxen, they don't need schools. What they need is hard work, not education." -Gen. Somoza
dumped millions of tons of mercury into Lake Managua
death toll: ?
took land for farming of cash crops
violently eliminate opposition
Family accumulated billions of dollars at expense of Nicaraguan people The Managua Earthquake 1972 Killed 10,000; destroyed 50,000 homes
Somoza abuse:
poured foreign aid $ into contracts within Somoza family and friends
sold foreign aid supplies
excuse to institute martial law
bribes to guard properties
Somozas own only cement factory
Spur FSLN into aggressive opposition CAUSE: the Economy Managua Earthquake: gov't budget deficits & inflation
indebted to foreign nations
Somoza have massive holdings in all industries
Nicaragua: agricultural state
cattle, rum, bananas, coffee, cotton, etc.
take land from peasants for cash crops
cash crops not always successful- Nicaraguan cotton
farmers no longer have land to grow own food = starvation = anger CAUSE: Increased Poverty
and Unequal Distribution of Wealth Somozas kept the poor poor
haves in power, have nots suppressed
little access to education, healthcare, & housing
no real representation in gov't CAUSE:
United States Involvement Involved in Nicaragua since 19th century; Monroe Doctrine & whatnot
look to est. democratic allies in C. & S. Americas
protect US interests (banks, factories, gold mines)
US Marines sent in again after Earthquake to help enforce martial law
Nicaraguan people resent US
1966: Somoza sponsored prez offer Nicaragua to US as naval base for Cuban relations
Somoza family friendliness
US Marines work with Nat'l Guard to hunt Sandino
Anti-leftist policy; Somozas not great, but not communist
Fund Somoza dictatorship to keep right in power Weapons Used: Mines! -Set up throughout Nicaragua
-"A total of 179,970 mines were destroyed in 21 years of constant work (after the war)," -Juan Umana, a Nicaraguan ministry of defense representative Other Weapons: - Set up throughout Nicaragua

- "A total of 179,970 mines were destroyed in 21 years of constant work (after the war)," -Juan Umana, a Nicaraguan ministry of defense representative - National Guard was supplied by the United States to begin but lost their support by the end of 1978

- Between 1950 and 1976, it was estimated that the United States provided the Nation Guard with $18.2 million in military aid, and trained about 5,400 members of the guard

- Used a variety of weapons… the FSLN used weapons they captured from the National Guard and weapons they got from Cuba, which were predominantly Soviet weapons 1976-1977:
Guerilla Warfare October 1977: - Los Doce (The Group of Twelve) was formed by a group of Nicaraguan businessmen and scholars

- This helped strengthen the FSLN by giving it some foundation for some form of future government January 10, 1978: - Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal (aka Chamorro) was assassinated

- Chamorro was the editor of La Prensa, which was the only significant opposition newspaper to the Somoza rule (side note: his wife became president of Nicaragua in 1990… the couple was pretty important)

- Thousands of people showed up for his funeral January 23, 1978: - Nationwide strike began

-People started revolting sporadically and violently, an estimated 30,000 people revolted in the streets of Managua

-In Managua, people set cars on fire and attacked buildings related to the Somoza family

-Moderate groups started asking for the United States to intervene July, 1978: - United States sent a letter to Somoza congratulating the dictator for improving the country’s human rights conditions

- At this time the lower class population was being severely suppressed and the country was in violent chaos… so the moderate groups no longer believed U.S. intervention could help them August, 1978: - 25 members of the Third Way, led by Edén Pastora Gómez, succeeded on a raid on the National Palace during a congress session. The men took about 2,000 government officials and members of congress hostage

- This embarrassed the National Guard and Somoza’s government

- U.S. cut their embassy staff by half, and withdrew their military support, which severely weakened Somoza’s government November, 1978: - the Organisation of American States' (OAS) Inter-American Commission on Human Rights published a report charging the National Guard with numerous human rights violations

- Yet another embarrassment for the Somoza government June, 1979: -the FSLN regrouped and attacked all over the country

- Within a few weeks, the FSLN controlled most major cities, and some rural areas

- Somoza realized he could not maintain his position so he fled to Paraguay, leaving vice-president Francisco Urcuyo Maliaños to rule

- After about 2 days of rule, Francisco Urcuyo Maliaños fled to Guatemala July 1979-
FSLN controlled Managua Women: - Not that significant but they were allowed to fight in the FSLN

- Women’s rights were changing due to the war Children: - Some children fought in the war for the FSLN but it was not that significant

- Students - Arlen Siu- Her image invoked in the youth a spirit of rebellion and hope, a wish for a better Nicaragua, abundant with freedom and bread EFFECTS Sandinista Victory New revolutionary government headed by a ruling junta
Provisional constitution: Fundamental Statute
Relations with the US declined
Health reforms
Roughly 30,000 dead and half a million homeless
Rightists fled Nicaragua Economy Agrarian reform
Aimed to increasing the support for the government and guarantee sufficient food delivery into the cities
Division of property into four forms: state, cooperative, communal, individual
Agrarian reform laws
By 1985, thousands of acres of land became peasant collectives
“Wild cat nationalizations” Cultural Revolution National Literacy Campaign of 1980
Teachers and students visit countryside
Illiteracy rate dropped from 50.3% to 12.9%
UNESCO awarded Nicaragua the Nadezhda K. Krupskaya Award
Ministry of Culture
Editorial Nueva Nicaragua
Instituto de Estudios del Sandinismo Contra War Rightists flee
They become counterrevolutionaries or “Contras”
Guerilla warfare- Mines
Iran-Contra Affair
Election of 1990 Practices of War:
1976-1979 The Sandinista National Liberation Front
(Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, or FSLN)
National Guard
(backed by US) Women Mother of Heroes & Martyrs
Mothers of the Kidnapped
After the war, they rallied for the release of Sandinista prisoners
Joined normal workforce
Mobilized for social change
Fought for women's emancipation
Today they make up 60% teachers in Nicaragua
Full transcript