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The Immune System!!!

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Rebekah Ashlily

on 27 February 2017

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Transcript of The Immune System!!!

The Immune System!!!
Bailey Oliver
What is the function of the Immune System?
Works Cited
http://www.livescience.com/26579-immune-system.html
https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/the-immune-system-42/innate-immune-response-233/pathogen-recognition-871-12121/
http://medimoon.com/2014/10/difference-between-innate-and-acquired-immunity/
http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/immunity-active-passive-immunity.html
http://www.majordifferences.com/2014/04/difference-between-active-and-passive.html#.WLNqfzvyu00
https://www.drugs.com/article/antibiotics-and-viruses.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22179/
https://www.reference.com/science/difference-between-cellular-humoral-immunity-c5f93468a67329b#
http://www.avert.org/global-hiv-and-aids-statistics
The Immune System's function is to protect against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies.
Major Organs of the Immune system...
Bear with me, there are quite a few.
Lymph Nodes
Small bean-shaped structures that store the cells which the body uses to fight infection and disease.
Spleen
Largest lymphatic organ in the body. It stores and contains the white blood cells that the body uses to fight infection or disease.
Bone marrow
The yellow tissue in the center of large bones in the body. It contains stem cells, which are cells that can become any cell in the body.
Lymphocytes
They are small white blood cells.
There are 2 types:
B-cells and T-cells
B-cells
These are antibodies that attack bacteria and toxins.
T-cells help destroy infected or cancerous cells.
There are two subunits:
Helper and Killer
T-cells
Helper T-cells
These T-cells determine which immune response the body will make to certain pathogens.
Killer T-cells
Kills cells that are infected with viruses or pathogens or are severely damaged.
Thymus
A small organ that stores immature T-cells. It provides a place for the t-cells to mature
This organ is larger in infants and shrinks with age after puberty.
Leukocytes
These are disease fighting white blood cells. They identify and eliminate pathogens.
I know you can't see them. I'm sorry. They are there.
How does the body recognise pathogens.
Cells in the lymph and the blood detect the pathogen associated molecular patterns or (PAMPs) on the pathogen's surface.These are often carbohydrates or nucleic acid "signatures" that differ from those on the host cells. this helps the body determine which cells are foreign and which are not.
There are two types of Immunity:
Innate and Acquired.
Innate immunity
Acquired Immunity
Also called natural or in-born immunity. It is present at birth with out having prior exposure to pathogens. It is non-specific and limited in response but it is always there.
Also called adaptive immunity. It develops only when the body is exposed to the pathogens. It is specific to certain pathogens that the body has previously been exposed to. It is dependent on external environmental factors.
there are two subunits of adaptive or acquired Immunity:
Active Immunity and Passive Immunity
Active Immunity
Occurs when the body comes into contact with the pathogen. It is not immediate, the body takes a few days to recognise it. The immunity can last for a lifetime and the side effects are few.
Passive Immunity
The antibodies are obtained from the outside. This grants immediate immunity but does not last for more than a few weeks. There are side effects such as serum sickness
One more difference between slide!!! Yayyy!!!!
There are two types of innate immunity:
Humoral and Cell-mediated
Humoral Immunity
This type of immunity utilizes B-cells that kill the pathogenic cells and also creates a memory of the antigens.
Cell-Mediated Immunity
This type of immunity utilizes the T-cells to tag and destroy the foreign antigens
Why don't antibiotics work on viruses..
They don't work because they are made to target the growth machinery of bacteria. Bacteria and viruses have very different structures. It would make sense that antibiotics can't target viruses.
HIV/AIDS
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It targets and attacks the body's T-cells, drastically dropping the CD4 count in the body. Once that number drops too low, the virus becomes what is known as AIDS which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. In the latter stages of this disease, something as simple as the common cold can be deadly. Over 36 million people worldwide have this disease, and just under half don't get treatment. There is currently no cure but doctors continue to search for one.
DiGeorge Syndrome
DGS is a rare congenital condition caused by a deletion of a large portion if the 22nd chromosome. This section's main function is growth of the thymus and some related glands. This leads to a distinct lack of T-cells, which are a vital part of the immune system. It is very difficult to treat but there is research is being done.
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