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Anna Freud and Margaret Mahler

By Ashton Plusquellec, Kiera Grant, Lexy Goebel, and Taylor Porter
by

Lexy Goebel

on 15 November 2012

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Transcript of Anna Freud and Margaret Mahler

Developmental Lines: The Sequence of Id-Ego Interactions to Gain Ego Mastery The lines of development show the ego’s attempts to confront life situations, such as separation from mother, birth of a sibling, and peer relations. Born in Vienna on December 3,1895
Anna Freud was the sixth child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Freud
Anna was very devoted to her father and his work
She was also devoted to the field of child development analysis
She made groundbreaking research on child psychoanalysis
Became a founder of child psychoanalysis Anna Freud's Ten Ego Defenses Separation-Individuation Theory Focused on the relationship between the mother and the child By Ashton Plusquellec, Kiera Grant, Lexy Goebel and Taylor Porter Anna Freud and Margaret Mahler
Child Developmental Analysts Developmental lines are Anna Freud’s term for a developmental sequence of id-ego interactions. As children grow, they outgrow their independence on external controls and gain an ego mastery of internal and external reality. Ego Mastery: The Ego’s Ability to Deal with Both Internal Drives and External Reality Developmental lines may be thought of as reliable sequences in the child’s maturation from dependency to relatively complete independence, from irrationality to rationality, and from passivity to activity. Ego mastery is the ego’s ability effectively to deal with both internal drives and external reality. The six developmental lines are:
1.From Dependency to Emotional Self-Reliance
2.From Suckling to Rational Eating
3.From Wetting and Soiling to Bladder and Bowel Control
4.From Irresponsibility to Responsibility in Body Management
5.From the Body to the Toy, and from Play to Work
6.From Egocentricity to Companionship Anna Freud expanded on the topic of her father’s (Sigmund Freud) ego defenses.
In 1936, "The Ego and The Mechanisms of Defense" introduced the principle of inner mechanisms that defend the Ego.
The book had three purposes
The first was to review the technical and theoretical developments that had taught analysts how to give equal consideration clinically to the id, ego and superego.
Secondly, to review the mechanisms her father had isolated and described and elaborate on them and summarize them.
Lastly, to incorporate her experience thus far with defense mechanisms.
Anna Freud found the ego’s defenses to be silent and invisible. The Mechanisms of Defense 1. REPRESSION (motivated forgetting)
1A. DENIAL (motivated negation)
2. ASCETICISM (renunciation of needs)
3. PROJECTION (displacement outward)
3A. ALTRUISTIC SURRENDER (sacrifice self)
3B. DISPLACEMENT (redirection of impulse)
4. TURNING-AGAINST-SELF (self-as-object)
5. REACTION-FORMATION (believing the opposite)
5A. REVERSAL (active into passive)
6. SUBLIMATION (acceptable substitutes)
7. INTROJECTION (taking within)
7A. IDENTIFICATION-WITH-THE-AGGRESSOR (adopting feared traits)
8. ISOLATION (stripping of emotions)
9. UNDOING (magical cancellations)
10. REGRESSION (developmental retreat) Born in Hungary on May 10, 1897
Began studying Sigmund Freud’s work
Began school at the University of Budapest
Graduated from the University of Jena in 1922 and began training in Psychiatry
Moved to New York & began a private practice
Spent most of her career working with psychologically impaired children
One of the first psychologists to specialize in the treatment of psychatric children
Wrote the "The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant: Symbiosis and Individuation"
Most significant contribution was her theory on Seperation and Individuation These phases will create the child's adaptability to adult life I.Normal Autistic Phase: Birth to 1 Month
II.Normal Symbiotic Phase: 1 to 5 Months
III.Sub-phase One: Differentiation 5 to 10 Months
IV.Sub-phase Two: Practicing 10-16 Months
V.Sub-phase three: Rapprochement 16 to 24 Months
VI.Sub-phase four: Consolidation and Object Constancy 24-36 Months Defense Mechanisms Quiz 1. B) Avoidance
2. C) Sublimation
3. C) Rationalization
4. A) Sublimation
5. D) Anna Freud
6. A) Intellectualization
7. C) Denial
8. D) Displacement Psychotic children Psychotic disorders include severe mental disorders which are characterized by extreme impairment of a person’s ability to think clearly, respond emotionally, communicate effectively , understand reality, and behave appropriately.
Psychotic symptoms include delusions and hallucinations
Delusions: false but firmly held beliefs
Hallucinations: hearing voices when no one is talking. Anna Freud Margaret Mahler
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