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Programming

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by

Truman Natividad

on 23 May 2014

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Transcript of Programming

End
What is Programming?
Computer programming is the process of telling a machine/computer what to do through a set of instructions , which is then interpreted by the computer to perform 1 or more tasks.
What does the computer do when I'm testing my program?
The computer is following my set of instructions/commands given to it to achieve its goal/task through the computer's understanding of the instruction.
Types of Programming Languages
It seemed to me that programming languages are mainly classified under 2 categories:

Machine or system languages
High-level languages


Machine or System Languages
System/Machine programming languages manage the components of a computer system. System/Machine languages deal with:

Memory management
Process management
Data transfer
Caches
Device drivers
Operating systems
High Level Languages (HLLs)
High-Level languages allow people to use a computer/other gadgets for different tasks like:

typing
playing video games
accessing the internet
creating presentations
creating animations
performing mathematical operations
performing scientific simulations
Programming
By Truman Natividad
My curiosity about programming grows...
a computer program in a compiler and its set of instructions made by its user
What do I need to Program?
Computer
Purpose (what is it that you want your program to do)
Choose the language the program will be written in
Compiler
Text Editor
Debugger
Reference manual/book
>
(Normally come together)
Names of Some High-Level Languages
A High-Level language can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms. Some High-Level languages include:

Action!
A++
A# .NET
BASIC
BOO
BETA
C
C--
C++
D
Dart
DCL
Why There Are so Many High-Level Languages
Programming languages are tools for solving problems or for getting computational jobs done. Some tasks are large or complex (e.g. calculate salaries for all the employees of a large company). Some are small or simple (e.g. sum the numbers from 1 to 10). One size does not fit all, so programming languages were created for specific purposes, hardware and applications.
HLLs have features such as:

Names for almost everything: variables, types (symbols), subroutines, constants, modules
Complex expressions (e.g. 2 * (y^5) >= 88 && sqrt(4.8) / 2 % 3 == 9)
Control structures (conditionals, switches, loops)
Composite types (arrays, lists)
Type declarations
Type checking
Easy ways to manage global, local and heap storage
Subroutines with their own private scope
Abstract data types, modules, packages, classes
Exceptions
Features of HLLs
Why is Programming Important?

Without programs our computers would be useless. We wouldn't have any electronics today.
Programming allows us to create or use tools that will solve problems or do our jobs faster and less repetetive
It allows us to create games and movies
It develops our critical reading, analytical thinking, creative synthesis
Example of a Simple Program
This small program requests a number (n) and if that number is even, the program multiplies n by 3 and adds 1. If the number is odd, the program multiplies n by 4 and subtracts 3.

In Python, the program looks like this:

def
f
(
n
)
:

return

3

*
n
+

1

if
n
%

2

==

0

else

4

*
n
-

3

In Lisp, the program looks like this:

(
defun
f
(
n
)

(
if

(
=
(
mod
n
2
)

0
)

(
+

(
*

3
n
)
1
)

(
-

(
*

4
n
)

3
)))
Full transcript