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Transcript of Claims/Arguments
Claim of VALUE
A claim of value refers to any preferences, biased opinions, or judgements of any sort that may reflect your personal views and values on different topics. These topics are often included in social, religious, or cultural beliefs and values. A value claim can be made about any subject or topic in which you have a specific taste for, such as reading, art, music genre, movies, food, professional sports teams, morals, and so forth. Value claims and arguments are at the center of any written piece.
“It follows that intentional abortion (even in the few cases where the baby’s death is an unintended but foreseen side effect) is unjust and therefore objectively immoral" (Lee & George).
This is a clear example of a value claim, being that it is merely stating an opinion. Many believe that abortion is wrong because you are taking a life. This argument of value has to deal with morals and most of the time, religious views, which makes this a claim of value. On the other hand, many can respond with their claims of value arguing for abortion, saying it is against women's rights to take away the choice of abortion
Claims of Policy
A claim of policy is an essay consisting of an argument that certain conditions should exist. These essays advocate adoption of policies or courses of action because problems have arisen that call for a solution. Defending a claim of policy often involves first convincing the audience that a problem exists, considering opposing arguments, and providing specific data that shows the benefits of the claim. In simpler terms a claim of policy is a writer's thesis for supporting a change in a concept like stricter gun control opposed to liberal use of gun to control or improve the quality of life for those living in texas.
"At the present time most colleges, including Iowa State use a combination of standardized test scores, high school class rank, high school grade point average, and essays to make decisions on admissions. All of the above are good determinants of a student’s possible success in college, except standardized test scores. Standardized tests discriminate against minorities and are not a good overall indicator of a student’s potential. For these reasons and others, Iowa State should not use standardized test scores when making admissions decisions (LeBaugh).”
This is a clear example of a claim of policy because the passage is stating that Iowa State should not be using standardized test score. By doing this the author of this text is stating his disapproval and trying to change something that is currently in effect today.
"The second claim is that the preventive services provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) should be invoked to establish legal entitlements to WGS, without any patient cost sharing".(Ossorio)
This second example is another clear example of a claim of policy by the author stating her position, and then shortly after stating what could be change to help improve the quality of life for these patients
Influence Rhetorical Analysis:
Context: It is how an argument began to take root and form that is subjective to how Context and claim of policy interact. Let us use the first example to show what I mean; “it is stated that the standardized test discriminate minorities and that is why some student’s potential is affected.” So the context of this argument would be: the schools in Iowa where this is taking place, the student’s demographics, the teachers, and many others. So by having this vast amount of people and their own ideas they affect either side of this pro or con argument. So by having these two sides they form a claim of policy of how policies are determined, or how policies should be changed.
“Capital punishment is an intolerable denial of civil liberties and is inconsistent with the fundamental values of our democratic system”
Explanation: Much like my previous example, many believe that the death penalty is morally wrong. Many argue that there are many innocents in the prison system, that the death penalty cost too much to use, and that there are racial disparities in the prison system. All of these arguments of value are based off of what people believe. On the other hand, many also believe that heinous crimes should be punishable by death.
Influence Rhetorical Analysis
The context of value claims and arguments has anything to do with any background, upbringing, or personal beliefs acquired over the writers lifetime. For instance, socio economic class would have a lot to do with what the writer may or may not write about. Another example, such as religious background, can also influence a writer’s decision and construct.
The audience can influence value claims by intentionally targeting the other parties beliefs or values. For instance, usually in value claims, the writer is either for, or against a particular topic. Therefore, the audience will be controlled and determined depending on the value argument being made.
Influence Rhetorical Analysis
The purpose behind a value argument is simply to either inform or persuade the audience of a certain outlook or reason. Most of the time, value claims are made to sway the opposing party to get them to buy in to what the first party is saying.
The persona in a value argument can range anywhere from angry, to calm, to empathic. Usually when arguing on a certain topic, the tone taken can dramatically affect the outcome of the claim. The persona of a value argument ultimately controls the outcome depending of the certain tone taken.
Rhetorical Choice Guide
Claim of policy influences the audience by challenging, or supporting the reader’s perspective on a certain topic. By challenging the audience's perspective you then influence the way they view the topic, and this in turn could affect the way the audience gathers information. It is also influenced by the audience because the different audiences that the writer is going to be addressing might change the persona he uses, or even the way he structures his text.
We can see an example of this in our 1st example where it is addressing the Iowa State admissions to change their admission decisions. They challenge the reader to think what determines a good applicant, and how they should be determined to be accepted or not. By doing this the reader then collects this information in a pro or con stance to the claim of policy.
: The claim of policy pretty much overlaps with the purpose, because the purpose of a text is what the writer is trying to influence/ convey/ or inform the reader. As the claim of policy is how a writer shows their side of the story to their reader, by the thesis, how they bring their information, and the persona they use. We can see an example of the purpose of a text in the second example as stated “the preventive services provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) should be invoked to establish legal entitlements to WGS.” We see the purpose or claim of policy in this quote by it stating what the ACA should be changing in its policy to help fund the World Service group.
Influence Rhetorical Analysis
The Claim of Policy effects the persona of a text tremendously. It does this by affecting the way the author structures the persona depending on the claim of policy. For example the author is trying to push for legalizing marijuana, so this claim of policy will affect the persona because it will make the author become more informational, or have a convincing tone to influence the way the reader will comprehend the information given. We can see a very clear example of this in our first example of how they use the word discriminate. This word is viewed very negatively and when used properly like how the writer has it can create a negative tone to any one sentence.
LeBaugh, Jon. "Claims of Policy -." Claims of Policy -. IAState, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
Ossorio, Pilar N., and J. Paul Kelleher. "Why We Should Not Use The Affordable Care Act To
Encourage Widespread Whole Genome Sequencing." Journal Of Health Politics, Policy & Law 39.1
(2014): 247-258. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
Claim of Definition
The rhetorical claim of definition is essential in building an argument. Claim of definition contributes to a flow of information and provides support to the argument. Claim of definition is when a word or phrase is defined as something it is, or something it is not. Definition claims can also associate the definition of a term into categories. In other words, the meaning of (X) is placed or categorized as (Y). (Weida & Stolley).
Audience controls definition claims in not only of word choice, but by the point of view and complexity of the definition; this contributes to determining whether the definition appears to contain language pertaining to a specific discourse community. The definition claim about abortion can be used to attract an audience interested in implementing policies and laws or those interested in the medical effects of the procedure. On the other hand, people referring to politics can use
the definition on democracy to
study government structures.
“Democracy, and democratic governance in particular, means that people’s human rights and fundamental freedoms are respected, promoted and fulfilled, allowing them to live with dignity” ("Democracy and the United Nations).
“Abortion is the deliberate and direct killing, by whatever means it is carried out, of a human being in the initial phase of his or her existence, at any time from conception to birth.”
("Effects of Abortion")
Definition claims are considered the background information to prepare the audience for the topics that will be discussed or argued. The context is used to determine the external factors that may have influenced the overall purpose of a paper. Therefore, the definition claims added are entitled to provide the external meanings on a word, object, or phrase that are necessary to comprehend the meaning of the writing. With the explain of the definition claim on democracy, it can be assumed that the paper will be regarding government and politics and the the context of the issue can be examples of democratic governments, how a democracy is formed and controlled, and how it impacts society overall.
A claim of fact is a specific statement of what is or isn’t or what appears to be true/ untrue. There should be a clear distinction between fact and inference. Factual claims can be historical, relational, predictive, etc. When making a claim of fact in rhetoric, there must always be an opportunity to disprove the statement. In order for the claim to be valid, logical fallacies should be avoided and appropriate support be included (McGaan).
Purpose largely controls definition claims. Claims of definition are used to open up and reveal the topic of the argument. If a paper is written to argue the pros and cons on a subject, the definition claims would clearly define the subject in question and suggest the purpose of the arguement. From the example definition claim against abortion, the audience can assume the purpose of that argument would be to persuade the readers to be against abortion. Oppositely, the democracy claim of definition would be to convince the audience of the overall benefits and respected effects of a equal democratic society.
The support given when making a claim of fact can be directly linked to the context of the overall text. The writer’s reasoning for arguing the way he/she is, is influenced by his/her context. Attributes of the writer such as educational history, age, racial background, and general life experiences can all affect the writer’s biases, and in turn, his/her position in the argument.
Persona influences how the claim of definition interprets, explains, and perceives the topic. The persona can direct the definition claim to sound more positive or negative depending on the purpose of the argument. The democracy claim of definition is perceived as positive and rewarding, attempting to persuade the audience of the great societial benefits of a democratic government. This is opposite of the abortion definition claim where the persona is very negative and angry, in which the purpose is to argue the unethical consequences of killing a fetus.
What Is It?
A claim of fact influences the audience in the word choice used and the accreditation given. When making a claim of fact, support is essential so the reasoning behind the stated fact should be present. Who the audience of the text is will match who the the fact influences and how it is presented. For example, if the fact given is a scientific one written with an educated diction, the corresponding audience will most likely be one educated in the particular field of science because they are whom the fact most concerns. Whether or not they agree with the fact will be influenced by the correctness of the language used and the evidence the fact was based on.
Persona is influenced by the claim of fact used because in general, using a claim of fact correctly can make the writer sound more convincing overall. The way the fact is stated can also affect the persona; a fact with a lot of support and evidence will lead to a knowledgeable persona.
Purpose is influenced due to the purpose of using a claim of fact, which is to convince the audience of what is being said. Since a claim of fact is arguing a specific statement, it is consequently used to convince the audience of the overall purpose of the text. Therefore, the fact used influences the overall purpose because it adds support.
The definition claim about democracy is very positive and effective, associating it as a form of government that respects human rights and individual freedoms. However, some may argue against this definition claim and indicate democracy as an inadeqate form of government from their own perspectives. Democracy is defined and explained as to how it effects the governed people.
"Most indigenous Africans are immensely underdeveloped and have suffered for more than five centuries because of these triple evils that have been imposed on them by European colonial powers, successive global powers, and their African collaborators" (Asafa).
Asafa, Jalata. "The triple causes of African underdevelopment:
Colonial capitalism, state terrorism and racism." International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 7.3 (2015): 75 - 91.
Crean, Rebecca D, Crane, Natania, C, Mason, Barbara J. "An Evidence
Based Review of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use on Executive Cognitive Functions." US National Library of Medicine
McGaan, Lee. "Types of Claims" (2008). Argumentaion. Web.
Keefer. "Claim of Fact, Value, and Policy." New York Univeristy. New York University, n.d. Web. <www.nyu.edu/classes/keefer/nature/WW2claim.pdf>.
Lee, Pattrick, and Robert George. "The Wrong of Abortion." Blackwellpublishing, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
Bedau, Hugo A. "The Case Against the Death Penalty." American Civil Liberties Union. ACLU, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
"Defending a Claim of Fact." Shelby County Schools, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <www.scsk12.org>.
This is a claim of fact because it clearly explains his interpretation of what is true of indigenous African people. The other side of the situation, Europeans, also have the opportunity to disprove the statement by arguing that they aren't the reason for the adversity. The writer goes on and gives further support in order to strengthen the legitimacy of his fact.
"Information processing is a fundamental aspect of attention and concentration and a basic building block of higher order cognitive processing" (Crean).
This is a claim of fact because the writer makes a statement that is supported by research and statistics. However it is also disputable because another scientist can perform an experiment with results that go against this statement. Despite being a controversial statement, it still holds validity and is therefore a fact.
"Democracy and the United Nations." UN News Center. United Nations, n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2015.
"Effects of Abortion." Family & Life.org. Family & Life, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
Weida, Stacy, & Stolley, Karl. "Developing Strong Thesis Statements." Purdue OWL: Establishing Arguments. The Writing Lab &
Purdue University, 23 Nov. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
In this example, the claim of definition is used to define abortion but in a more negative persona. The writer defines abortion as a form of killing of a pre-existing human being and it can be assumed the the purpose of their argument would be against the issue of abortion. These can be a controversial definition in which some people may feel oppositely about the issue. The key to claims of definition is that people can use them to argue from both standpoints on the topic.
By Group 5: