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Imperialism and Algeria

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OKAC NNHS

on 6 November 2013

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Transcript of Imperialism and Algeria

French Imperialism in Algeria
Cultural and economic impact
The fight for
Independence

Algeria's
Legacy

The French
Colonization
of Algeria

1830-1962
Motivation for Colonization
1970-Today
1954-1962
In 1827 the French began occupying Algeria

The French treated the nations other than their own as a second class
Formed system based on oppressions of and violence against the Algerians
This picture displays the torture and mistreatment of Algerians
Algeria
France
In 1827 the French invaded Algeria and started colonizing its people.
AFRICA
Europe


-The French confiscated land at low prices from owners.

-Algeria was divided into three oversea departments by France - controlled by the European settlers.

-They developed a modern economy: industries, banks, schools, shops
French conquest of Algeria
- By French law the Algerians could not hold public meetings, carry firearms, or leave their home or villages without permission.
-In the 19th century, thousands emigrated to France.
French Rule
The French rule: 1830-1962, and during this time French citizens called “Pieds-Noirs” lived throughout Algeria.
Wars for Independence
The FLN:
Front de Libération Nationale, or the National Liberation Front, was a socialist political party that led the revolution.
Formed:
March 1954

November of 1954:
Coordinated attacks on government buildings, military/police posts, and communications installations.
Two major battles took place
Battle of Algiers
September 30, 1956:
Nationwide general strike called by the FLN.
Spring of 1957:
An average of 800 bombings and shootings took place every month.
Pied-Noir Flag
March of 1962:
Cease-fire issued
Nationwide referendum in July:
Clear majority of votes for Independence.
July 5, 1962:
Algeria became an independent country, elections scheduled for September.
Guerilla War
Guerilla Warfare
Guerilla Warfare is characterized by hit-and run tactics.
French slaughtered Algerian Villages
The FLN used terrorism against the white civilian population
French called in 400,000 soldiers, and erected electrified fences along the Tunisian and Moroccan borders
After Independence
Pieds-Noirs supported liberation war and did not turn their backs on the Algerians.
Triumvirate established between
Ahmed Ben Bella
,
Colonel Houari Boumédiènne
,
and Mohamed Khider
: linked the army, the party, and the government, respectively.
Army
Party
Government
-France controlled Algeria by using a very direct and firm rule

-Since the French were so strict with the Algerian people, they were constantly disobeyed and the two nations could not agree.
Geography
The Berber forces continued to resist the French in the 1850’s and in 1871 Kabyle Berbers staged a fierce rebellion in Kabylie in eastern Algeria.
French Tanks in Algeria


More than a million Algerians were killed in the fight for Independence from France in 1962.
Painting of Kabylie, Algeria
Algeria
France
Cities, Deserts, and mountains in Algeria
Algeria contains a significant amount of the Sahara desert whereas the northern part it fertile
-France and Algeria are friendly countries and keep a good relationship today.
Trade
Imports:industrial equipment, consumers goods, and food.
Exports: phosphates, vegetables, tobacco, and leather goods.
French Settlers outraged by lack of Algerian opression
Overthrow their own governent
Install General
Charles De Gaulle
as leader
Both led by FLN
Aimed against French/Algerians who supported French rule
Frances colonization in Algeria helped improved many areas in the country such as sanitation, clean water, good education, producing products of great value and people living longer.

This and many other factors has helped Algeria to become one of the most developed countries in Africa today
France
Algeria
U.S.A
Liberia
Niger
% of population using improved drinking water
100%
83%
48%
68%
Life expectancy from birth:
Age: 81
FRANCE
U.S.A
Age: 78
ALGERIA
Age: 73
LIBERIA
Age: 56
Age: 54
NIGER
99%

3 Languages: Arabic (official), French, Amazigh (national but not official
France took good care of the Algerians while they controlled them. Though it may have been brutal, a forced education has left Algerians not too far behind France in education today.
"Hollande (President of France) head for Algeria to 'heal and seal ties'"

- A headline from "France 24, International News"
"French President Francois Hollande, pictured during a press conference...travels to Algeria..seeking to end resentment over French colonial rule."
Algerian Flag
Hollande
This chart shows that the value of Algeria is much larger compared to its neighbors
- almost twice as much as the second highest value on the chart.
Gross National Income comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country A.K.A Gross Domestic Product.
Gross National Income (GNI) of Algeria and its neighbors
Mali 3%
Mauritania 1%
% of Pop. using improved sanitation
The Algerian Independence Movement/Algerian Revolution= 1954-1962
U.S.A - 100%
France - 100%
U.S.A - 100%
France-100%
Algeria -95%
Liberia - 17%
In 1830, the French tried to "civilize" the Algerian people, they pressed matters like hygiene and education. Because these ideas still exist in Algeria today, Algeria's death rate is twenty years older than it was in 1970!
In the early 1970's Algeria only had 29% of the population with access to drinking water. Thanks to new technologies and ideas the French brought with them when they colonized in 1830, 89% of Algeria's population has access to this water today.
French culture
French culture was forced into Algerians lives
France controlled government, education, and
intellectual life.
Europeans were more advanced in technology
Algerians treated like slaves
Impact on Women
Women did not have a visible presence in society.
Husbands owned their wives
Woman joined war of liberation against the French(1954-1962)
Algerian government is now based off of Frances'
Education
Arabic was taught as a first language and French as a second language.
Only 10% of adults could read or write in 1959
Educated Algerians considered themselves French with a Muslim identity.
Socialist villages were soon built in 1960 including schools, clinics and other faculties.
Arabic education was declined and replaced by a French system.
Algeria -95%
French colonial forces however
put down this revolt in 1872 and
subsequently confiscated large
amounts of land from the
Berbers as punishment.
Niger - 9%
France can also take much of the credit for helping
improve Algeria's sanitation. The French habits for keeping sanitary were picked up by the colonized Algerians, making them 3rd on this chart.
Photo Bibliography
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Semaine_des_barricades_Alger_1960_Haute_Qualité.jpg
http://www.businessinsider.com/algerian-war-france-pictures-2012-3?op=1
http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/fr%7Ddzfr.html#nof
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:De_Gaulle-OWI.jpg
http://www.georgiapoliticalreview.com/the-french-algerian-war-and-what-it-means-for-us/
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/politics-obituaries/9201077/Ahmed-Ben-Bella.html
http://habiballahkaybouz.skyrock.com/2586544429-Houari-Boumediene.html
http://cooperation-en-algerie.hautetfort.com/archive/2011/12/index.html
Major trading partners: France, Italy, USA, Spain, Germany, China
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=ALgeria
http://journals.cambridge.org/data/firstAbstract/EUR/EUR20_01/S0003975600003362a_abstract.jpg
http://www.bopsecrets.org/SI/10.Algeria.htm
http://www2.newcanaan.k12.ct.us/education
http://www.123rf.com/stock-photo
http://www.pbase.com/world/algeria
http://www.businessinsider.com/algerian-war-france-pictures-2012-3?op=1
http://www2.newcanaan.k12.ct.us/education
http://cooperation-en-algerie.hautetfort.com/archive/2011/12/index.html
http://www.bopsecrets.org/SI/10.Algeria.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:De_Gaulle-OWI.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:De_Gaulle-OWI.jpg
By, Aine, Casey, Katie, and Olivia
When the French colonized Algeria it wasn't a walk in the park for the Algerians. There were thousands of deaths, many wars, and a lot of abuse. But despite how controlling the French were, today the two countries hold a good relationship and, on behalf of France Algeria is a very well off, independent country.
Religion
Full transcript