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Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder research

Jessica Calkins

on 6 November 2015

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Transcript of Major Depressive Disorder

What is it?
Major Depressive Disorder is a form of depression that is much more severe than temporary moments of feeling sad or "down in the dumps." It's a serious mental illness that affects one's thoughts, feelings, emotions, mood, and physical health.

People who are forced to suffer the burden this disorder establishes in one's life are so often overlooked. One reason why is because a lot of people don't actually understand the severity of depression like they think they do.

Another reason is because people trapped with this disorder are very good actors when they need to be. They want to keep it from everyone else because they're embarrassed, or they don't want to burden anybody.
Biological causes:
Genetics; this disorder tends to run in families.
Hormones; especially evident in disorders such as PMS or Postpartum Depression.
Changes in the level of neurotransmitters (serotonin)
Lower levels of electrical activity in the left frontal cortex

Environmental causes:
Social difficulties; death, divorce, financial problems, abusive relationships, and other stressful life events
Low socioeconomic status & oppression associated with one's sex or race
Childhood difficulties
Compounding stressful events can make depression even more likely.
("What Is Depression?") (Fitzgerald)
Major Depressive Disorder
• Cognitive therapy:
focuses on recognizing, challenging, and overcoming how one thinks of a situation. It helps the person think about the situation differently.
• Interpersonal therapy:
focuses on helping relationships.
• Behavioral therapy:
focuses on changing behaviors such as exercise to help the patient.
• Antidepressant medication:
Prozac is an example. This type of medication changes brain chemistry, and is often used with forms of therapy as well.
• Faith-based and self-help strategies:
this is helpful for people who are highly motivated.
• Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT):
this is also called “Shock Treatment.” It is a remedy of last resort for those with severe depression.
Jessica Calkins
There are many names for Major Depressive Disorder: clinical depression, major depressive illness, major affective disorder, and unipolar mood disorder, but it really does not matter what one calls it because they all mean the same thing: severe sadness that stays. It is not only difficult to deal with, but it is life-threatening in a lot of cases. It's also very difficult to know who suffers with this disorder because they can keep it so well hidden. But if you only open up your eyes, you may spot someone in your own life carrying this pernicious mental disorder, and perhaps you might save their life.
Depressed (sad) mood
Lack of pleasure or interest in activities
Sleep disturbance (Insomnia or Hypersomnia)
Weight loss/weight gain
Loss of energy
Social withdrawal
Agitation or psychomotor retardation (moving very slowly)
Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
Diminished concentration, or indecisiveness
Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent thoughts of suicide ideation
Suicide attempt
Thoughts about hurting self
Hurting self (cutting, burning, eating disorder, etc.)
("What Is Depression?")
1 in 10
American adult citizens report having clinical depression.
of women (nearly 12 million women) in the United States are diagnosed with depression compared to
of men (over 6 million men)
("Clinical Depression")
Data showed that
of hospital patients said they were depressed

of people with MDD die by suicide.
At least
of preschoolers (1 million+) are clinically depressed, and are becoming the largest market for anti-depressants.
rate increase for depression in children.
of currently depressed people are not receiving treatment.
of depressed women are too embarrassed to seek help.
of the majorly depressed will commit suicide
Depression will be the
second largest
killer after heart disease in the year
("Global depression...")
of the population of high-income countries are likely to get depressed in their lifetime compared to
of low-income countries
("An Estimated...")
Olivia Penpraze
was 19 when she
committed suicide
. She suffered from
major depression & psychosis
, and was hospitalized a number of times earlier in her life due to other suicide attempts Every May 1st, since 2008, she tried to take away her own life. Then, in
May of 2012
, she finally succeeded. It was possible Olivia was a victim to the mental illness
along with Major Depressive Disorder. Her depression was mainly caused by
at school and online, telling her to kill herself & calling her awful names. Olivia was on life support for a few days after she made her suicide attempt, and her parents had to make the toughest decision of their lives; they decided to
cut the life support
because there was no hope for Olivia to survive.
Depression took control
over her life, and it also
caused her demise.
Olivia Penpraze's Good-Bye Video;
Olivia Penpraze's Story;
Works Cited;
Take the quiz here:

"An Estimated 1 in 10 U.S. Adults Report Depression." Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention: 31 March 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

"Clinical Depression." University Health Services. Berkeley University of
California: 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

"Depression." National Institute of Mental Health. U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services: 19 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

Fitzgerald, Jane A. “Major Depressive Disorder.” Encyclopedia of Mind
Disorders. Advameg, Inc: 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012.

"Global depression statistics." ScienceDaily. BioMed Central: 26 July 2011.
Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

Murray, Bob and Alicia Fortinberry. "Depression Facts and Stats." Uplift
Program: 15 Jan. 2005. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

"Olivia Penpraze (19) took her own life after years of being bullied."
MyDeathSpace: 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

“What is Depression?” National Alliance on Mental Illness. NAMI: 2012. Web.
16 Nov. 2012.
("Olivia Penpraze (19)...")
Full transcript