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The Roaring Twenties
Transcript of The Roaring Twenties
• Outpouring of creativity in Harlem
• Appreciating black culture
• Langston Hughes (poet), James Weldon Johnson (author)
• Literature and paintings depicting black life
• Literature published by whites, fueled by white curiosity of life in Harlem
• W.E.B. Debois (writer)
• Augusta Savage (sculptor, opened her own studio and taught sculpting to other African Americans)
• Jazz legends: Count Basie Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, Cab Calloway The Harlem Renaissance Broadway
•Reached its prime during the 1920s and number of productions increased from 126 in 1917 to 264 in 1928.
• Original broadways were considered too “noble” and irrelevant to the real world. The plots in most Broadway plays began to criticize life, and this was considered to be the best period of Broadway. Birth of fresh and new ideas
•Regular citizens began to wear more intricate clothing.
•Famous Broadway Stars: Louise Brooks, Clara Bow, and Gloria Swanson
•“Steamboat” Premiered December 27, 1927 at Zugfield Theatre (about mixed marriages, gambling, infidelity and illegitimacy.)
•First productions that started to include exciting choreography (including Charleston, Tap, Swing, and Jazz Styles)
•The first prosperous all-black musical: “Shuffle Along”
•“Showboat” First Broadway that included both black and white performers on the same stage.
•In 1923, the German shepherd Rin Tin Tin became Hollywood’s first dog star.
•In 1927, Al Jolson performed his nightclub act in The Jazz Singer, the first feature-length talkie.
•In 1928, Walt Disney introduced the first cartoons with sound. The Academy Awards are handed out for the first time. Wings won as best picture.
•In 1927, Philo Farnsworth transmitted the first electronic television image.
Charlie Chaplin and Harold Lloyd:
•The majority of Harold Lloyd’s “thrill sequences” were dangerous stunts performed by Harold Lloyd himself. His most famous sequence was the scene from “Safety Last! “ where he is hanging from a giant clock.
•Harold Lloyd injured himself when a bomb was mistaken as a prop and resulted in the loss of right thumb and index finger. For his films, he would wear a prosthetic glove which would often go unnoticed by the audiences.
•Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin was an English comic actor, film director, and composer that became a famous American figure because of his silent films. Broadway, Television, Movies Prohibition Gangs The Presidents of the Twenties -In 1920, the 19th Amendment was passed. After 72 years of fighting, women were given the right to vote. Sometimes this amendment is called the Susan B. Anthony amendment after one of the most famous advocates. Big Changes in the Twenties The Roaring Twenties Hold fast to dreams
for if dreams die
Life is a broken winged bird
that cannot fly
Hold fast to dreams
for if dreams go
LIfe is a barren field
Frozen with snow
-Langston Hughes •Eighteenth Amendment banned the manufacture, sale or transport of alcoholic beverages
•Dry vs. Wet
•Alcoholism caused crime, violence, and the breakup of families
•Create better society, cities less immoral and wild and become more like rural areas
•Associated drinking with immigrants, beer – Germany, wine – Italy
•Saw it as an attempt of the federal government to legislate morality
•Violated their individual liberty
•Opposition from large cities and immigrant communities
•Increase of illegal behavior
•Homemade gin and smuggled alcohol from Canada
•Speakeasies – secret drinking clubs, 32,000 in New York City alone
•Bootlegging multimillion dollar business by the mid-1920s
•Gangsters like Al Capone •Black Gangs operated in Harlem
•Almost all organized gangs were Italian, Jewish, or Irish
•The 18th Amendment banned sale, transportation, and manufacture of alcohol
•Gangsters dominated large cities by smuggling alcohol, most famous of the gangsters was Al Capone from Chicago.
•Capone was considered “Public Enemy #1”, he moved to Chicago in 1920 and originally worked for Johnny Torrio. Capone had the job of intimidating Torrio’s rivals with the city so they would hand over their territory.
•When Torrio was killed by a rival gang, Capone took over “business”
•Within two years of leading the gang, Capone was earning sixty million a year based on alcohol sales alone.
•Capone managed to bribe both policemen and important politicians of Chicago.
•Drove everywhere in an armored, plated limousine and armed body
•In 1931, law finally caught up with Al Capone, he was only charged with tax evasion and retired shortly.
•The popular belief of the 20s up to the 30s was that illegal gambling/alcohol earnings were not taxable income. In 1927, the Sullivan ruling claimed that illegal profits were taxable income.
•Al Capone was born on January 17, 1899 in Brooklyn, New York
•Capone quit school when he was in the sixth grade at age fourteen.
•Besides running several speakeasies, bookie joints, gambling houses, brothels, horse and race, night clubs, distilleries, and breweries, he also owned the largest cleaning and dying plant chain in Chicago.
•Al Capone had an extensive spy network that consisted of newspaper boys all the way up to city policemen.
•Al Capone never owned anything under his own name and never made a declaration to assets or income.
•Frank Wilson from the IRS’s intelligence unit was assigned to focus on Al Capone. He found a cash receipts ledger that showed Capone’s profits for a gambling house, as well as his identity, and his records of income.
•The government only charged 215 080.48 in taxes for gambling profits
•In May 1932, Capone was sent to Atlanta, one of the toughest federal prisons to begin his eleven year sentence. In the prison, he was able to live comfortably with the consent of authorites; he furnished his cell with a mirror, typewriter, rug, and Encyclopedia Britannica. Because of word that spread about Al Capone, he was sent to Alcatraz.
•In Alcatraz, he showed signs of Syphillic Dementia, and he spent the rest of his sentence in a correction center and hospital
•After the completion of his sentence, he retired to Palm Island where he maintained a quiet lifestyle. • President Woodrow Wilson (served 1913-1921):
o Member of the Democratic Party
o Vice President was Thomas R. Marshall
o Wilson was the first president to hold a news conference. About 125 press members attended the conference.
o “If you want to make enemies, try to change something.”
• President Warren G. Harding (served 1921-1923):
o Member of the Republican Party.
o Vice President Calvin Coolidge
o Harding was a newspaper publisher before he became president
o “Ambition is the commendable attribute without which no man succeeds. Only inconsiderate ambition imperils.”
• President Calvin Coolidge (served 1923-1929):
o Member of the Republican Party
o Vice president was Charles C. Dawes
o Coolidge was the first president to be sworn in by his father, a justice of the peace.
o “The business of America is business.”
• President Herbert C. Hoover (served 1929-1933):
o Member of the Republican Party
o Vice President was Charles Curtis
o An asteroid, Hooveria, was named after Herbert Hoover
o “Peace is not made at the council table or by treaties, but in the hearts of men.” President Wilson
-Scandal occurred after Wilson married Edith Galt about a year after his first wife, Ellen Louise Axson died in August 1914.
-President Harding rewarded his friends and political contributers, The Ohio Gang, with financially powerful positions (Spoils System). Later the Ohio Gang became notorious for the Teapot Dome Scandal.
-During his presidency, Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs in one season.
-Hoover was regarded as an uncaring president and believed that the great depression was inevitable and encouraged people to simply endure the suffering despite the problems that it caused to average citizens. -In the 20s, many people were investing. However, on Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, stocks lost their value because too many people wanted to sell with very few people buying. Prices plunged and the majority of Americans lost their wealth.
-Advertising created more tactics into people buying things, many businesses hoped that advertising would bring more consumers. When consumers bought products, they used credit that had no background.
The Roaring Twenties had come to an abrupt end, sending the world spiraling into the Great Depression. -As people changed their viewpoints, Modernists and Traditionalists clashed. In the schools, the two groups argued whether evolution or creation should be taught in school. The Scopes trial was the result of Tennessee banning the teaching of evolution. John Scopes, a young science teacher, argued this in court. Although he lost, the fight between Modernists and Traditionalists was not over. Evidently, the Roaring Twenties brought about great changes to the United States. The traditional ways of thinking were gradually being replaced by newer and modern ideas. The Twenties were defined by the fun and fancy living with ... All That Jazz Woodrow Wilson
Served 1913-1921 Warden Harding
Served 1921-1923 Calvin Coolidge
Served 1923-1929 Herbert Hoover
Served 1929-1933 Al Capone Harold Lloyd in "Safety Last!"
clock-scene Society and Culture -19th Amendment