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The English Subjunctive
Transcript of The English Subjunctive
5) injuctive Definition: Old English:
-2 inflectional endings for subjunctive
-Increase of auxiliary verbs Middle English:
-By 1200's, no distinction between plural subjunctive and indicative Modern English:
-by 18th century, modals primary indicators -"Used to express a wish, hope, uncertainty, or other similar attitudes toward a fact or idea. Since it stresses the subject’s feelings about the fact or idea, it is usually subjective about them.” -Emily Spinelli -Mandative subjunctive-verbs of volition
-to discuss the hypothetical, future events or ideas, or things contrary to reality
-Formality Forms: Present Subjunctive: base form of verb Subjunctive: I recommend that Bill get a massage.
Indicative: Bill gets a massage. Past Subjunctive: were Past: Subjunctive: If I were rich, I could study linguistics all day!
Indicative: If I was (already) rich... Applications: -Contrary-to-fact conditions
-Formulaic Subjunctive-fixed expressions “English speakers tend to use an alternative expression whenever possible, usually with modal verbs (auxiliaries), to avoid the subjunctive in conversation and informal writing.” -Edith R. Farrell & C. Frederick Farrell Jr. Compared to Other Grammatical Categories: -Identical in Infinitive, 2nd person present tense of indicative, and the imperative -Differences:
-Infinitive: lacks 'to' marker
-Indicative: 3rd person singular, be
-Imperative: No explicit subject & is in main clause If-clauses:
-conditional in main clause=past subjunctive in subordinating clause
-future in main clause=present subjunctive in subordinating clause
-conditional/future not needed Name that Subjunctive!! __1. Mandative
(Fixed Expression) a) It's important that you eat your vegetables.
b) María insists (that) Jim make her a sandwich.
c) If I were smarter, I would have gone to bed a long time ago.
d) Whether they be large or small, I love eating truffles. Subjunctive or Indicative: Which is which and why? 1.If he was in class yesterday, he learned it.2.If he was/were in class today, he would be learning it.