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First Aid

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Ashley Cruz

on 11 April 2013

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Transcript of First Aid

Burns Poisoning If a person is bleeding or wounded... Always call 911 for a serious emergency Allergic Reactions Symptoms to look for: swollen lips, tongue, or ears uneasiness or agitation red face prickling and itching in throat and skin throbbing or ringing in ears sneezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing nausea or vomiting dizziness loss of bowel or bladder control weak, rapid pulse cold, clammy skin unresponsiveness The victim may die without
immediate medical treatment. So what do you do if somebody
is having an allergic reaction? 1.Call for 911 at the first sign of allergic reaction.
2.Monitor ABC's.
A- Airway. Is the victim's airway open?
B- Breathing. Is the patient breathing?
C- Circulation. Is the patient moving? Coughing? Groaning?
3.Help a responsive victim use their emergency epinephrine kit.
4.Have victim lie down, and cover them lightly with a blanket. If shortness of breath occurs, have victim sit up. Bleeding and wounds Wash your hands to avoid infection and use gloves if available. If the wound is abdominal and organs have been displaced, don't try to push them back into place! — cover the wound ( with white or light colored cloth if possible) If you think that the victim might have internal bleeding, call 911. Signs of internal bleeding may be...

Bleeding from body cavities
Vomiting or coughing up blood
Bruising on neck, chest, abdomen or side
Wounds that have penetrated the skull, chest or abdomen
Abdominal tenderness, possibly accompanied by rigidity or spasm of abdominal muscles
Shock, indicated by weakness, anxiety, thirst or skin that's cool to the touch Have the injured person lie down and cover the person to prevent loss of body heat Apply pressure directly on the wound until the bleeding stops Don't remove any large items or items that are stuck deep in the body. Your main concern is to stop the bleeding Don't remove the gauze or bandage that has been used on the wound. Add more bandages instead of removing the one underneath If applying pressure to the wounded
area does not stop the bleeding,
try applying pressure on the artery
delivering blood to that area Try to immobilize the hurt area as
much as possible This is a more serious burn. It involve all layers of the skin and can cause permanent tissue damage.
Fat, muscle and even bone may be affected.
Areas may be charred black or appear dry and white. 1.Cool the burn. Hold the burned area under cool (not cold) running water for 10 or 15 minutes or until the pain subsides. If it is not possible , immerse the burn in cool water or cool it with cold compresses. Cooling the burn reduces swelling .

Don't put ice on the burn !

Cover the burn with a sterile gauze bandage. Don't use fluffy cotton, or other material that may get lint in the wound.

Wrap the gauze loosely to avoid putting pressure on burned skin. Bandaging keeps air off the burn, reduces pain and protects blistered skin. 1.Don't remove burned clothing.

2.Don't apply cold water on a large area. Doing so could cause the patient to receive hypothermia and deterioration of blood pressure and circulation (shock).

3.Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement).

4.Elevate the burned body part or parts.

5.Cover the area of the burn. Use a cool, moist,
sterile bandage; clean, moist cloth; or moist
cloth towels.

6.Get a tetanus shot. Do NOT use ice. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause a person's body to become too cold and cause further damage to the wound.
Don't apply egg whites, butter or ointments to the burn. This could cause infection.
Don't break blisters. Broken blisters are more vulnerable to infection. 1st-degree burn 2nd-degree burn This is the least serious burn. Only the outer layer of skin is burned, but not all the way through.
skin is usually red
swelling can occur

Treat a first-degree burn as a minor burn unless it involves substantial portions of the hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or a major joint, which requires emergency medical attention the first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of skin (dermis) is also burned
Blisters develop
Skin may become red, and may become splotchy
severe pain and swelling. 3rd-degree burn For minor burns, including first-degree burns and second-degree burns: For major burns, call 911 or emergency medical help. Until an emergency unit arrives, follow these steps: Caution! Signs and symptoms of poisoning:
Burns or redness around the mouth and lips, from drinking certain poisons
Breath that smells like chemicals, such as gasoline or paint thinner
Burns, stains and odors on the person, on clothing, or on furniture, floor, rugs or other objects in the surrounding area
Empty medication bottles or scattered pills
Vomiting, difficulty breathing, sleepiness, confusion or other unexpected signs

When to call for help:
Drowsy or unconscious
Having difficulty breathing or has stopped breathing
Uncontrollably restless or agitated
Having seizures What to do while waiting for help

If the person has been exposed to poisonous fumes, such as carbon monoxide, get him or her into fresh air immediately.
If the person swallowed the poison, remove anything remaining in the mouth.
If the poison spilled on the person's clothing, skin or eyes, remove the clothing. Flush the skin or eyes with cool or lukewarm water, such as by using a shower for 20 minutes or until help arrives.
Make sure the person is breathing. If not, start CPR and rescue breathing.
Take the poison container (or any pill bottles) with you to the hospital. What NOT to do

Don't do anything to induce vomiting. It can do more harm than good. # * 911 Seizures "Out of this nettle, danger, we pluck this flower, safety."
-William Shakespeare During the seizure, it is important that the person should be placed on his or her left side. Keep in mind there is a small risk of post-seizure vomiting, before the person is fully alert. Therefore, the person’s head should be turned slightly downward so that any vomit or other fluids will drain out of the mouth without being inhaled. Stay with the person until he or she recovers (5 to 20 minutes). If someone is having an allergic reaction... What to do When a person is having a seizure :

1.Call 911
2.Stay calm
3. Prevent injury
4. Pay attention to the length of the seizure
5. Make the person as comfortable as possible
6. Keep onlookers away
7. Do not hold the person down
If the person having a seizure thrashes around there is no need for you to restrain them. Remember to consider your safety as well
8. Do not put anything in the person's mouth
Contrary to popular belief, a person having a seizure is incapable of swallowing their tongue .
9. Do not give the person water, pills, or food until fully alert
10. Be sensitive and supportive, and ask others to do the same What is an Allergic reaction? Allergies are an overreaction of the body's natural defense system that helps fight infections (immune system). The immune system normally protects the body from viruses and bacteria by producing antibodies to fight them. In an allergic reaction, the immune system starts fighting substances that are usually harmless (such as dust mites, pollen, or a medicine) as though these substances were trying to attack the body. This overreaction can cause a rash, itchy eyes, a runny nose, trouble breathing, nausea, and diarrhea. A burn is an injury caused by exposure to heat or flame. Poisoning occurs when you come into contact with a substance that is toxic. In some cases, the substance must be ingested to be poisonous, but in other cases, it is enough to inhale it or have it touch your skin. Some gases and chemicals may always be poisonous, but other items may only be poisonous in large amounts. A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that usually affects how a person feels or acts for a short time. Seizures are not a disease in themselves. Instead, they are a symptom of many different disorders that can affect the brain. Some seizures can hardly be noticed, while others are totally disabling. First Aid By: Fritz Vaval
Ashley Cruz
Riley Breck The allergic reaction has passed...
so what do I do now?

Make sure the person gets all the medical
attention he/she needed. Warn the person that they should avoid whatever they know might trigger an allergic reaction, or what they might think might trigger one. Planning a visit with an allergist would be recommended for the victim,
so that they have more knowledge about their
allergies and how to deal with them. The patient is finally out of danger...
now what?

If you have children in your household, keep knives, scissors, firearms, and fragile items out of their reach. When children are old enough, teach them to how to use knives and scissors safely.
Make sure you and anyone at home are up to date on vaccinations. A tetanus vaccine is generally recommended every 10 years. When the patient
is home and well, make sure they bandage and
clean their wounds correctly to avoid
getting an infection in the future.

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