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The Renaissance (1485-1660)
Transcript of The Renaissance (1485-1660)
What Brought About the Renaissance?
Began in Italy in 1300s
Moved to England in late 1400s/early 1500s (gradual occurrence)
Marked in England by crowning of Henry VII, the first Tudor King.
What was the Renaissance like?
Discussion of Renaissance Authors
1) Challenge the conventional secularist idea of the Renaissance as the period that originated modern humanism and skepticism
2) Discern the role of academic studies in the propagation of spiritual truths
3) Link Tudor national prosperity with the reception of the gospel
4) Understand the linguistic background for reading the King James Version of the Bible
5) Recognize that much of the literature during Tudor times was intended to serve moral virtue.
What is a "renaissance"?
"Renaissance" means rebirth.
The Renaissance was a period characterized by extraordinary achievements in sciences and arts that brought a fresh influx of knowledge to Europe.
What do you know about a rebirth?
Where do we see examples of spiritual rebirth in Scripture?
Renaissance English thought & literary expression came closer to a Biblical standard than they ever had before or have since.
What were some things happening during this time that may have helped people in England focus more on Biblical standards?
Printing Press invented (1440, Gutenberg)
Discoveries of new texts by Aristotle & Plato
Increased knowledge of Greek language
What was happening?
What did it bring about?
Wealth & politics in middle class
Protestantism & Reformation
Language Changes (vowel shift)
Increase in education
Increase in quantity of literature
The Tudors began to rule.
Gained land in New World
Defeated the Spanish Armada
Social & Economic
New political influence in Middle Class
Lutheranism comes to England
Tyndale's translation published
Henry VIII separates Church of England from Church at Rome
Edward VI brings about doctrinal reform of Church
Mary I reinstates Catholicism
Elizabeth I brings about moderation
Puritans begin opposing moderation
Early Modern English
begins w/Tudor Rule (1485)
Shakespeare & contemporaries use EME
Great Vowel Shift
Sounds change but spelling stays the same
Pronoun Forms Change
EME forms use "th"
Plural forms modeled on French began to be used in formal language & to address superiors.
"TH" began to be reserved for more personal & intimate conversations & addressing inferiors.
"Its" replaces "his" to represent neuter possessive
We see an increase in the intertwining of Protestant, Humanistic, and Courtly themes.
Portugese sea route around Africa - lowers prices & increases competition
Increase in wool trade
Attack & gain of Spanish settlements
Money replaced bartering in transactions
Modern credit & capital investment promoted
Why New Wealth?
New political influence?
New wealth gave middle class a strong voice in national affairs because they were the profit-making part of society.
Policy of mercantilism favored middle class.
MC members in House of Commons
City populations quadrupled from time of Chaucer to Elizabeth I
MC largely Protestant, less tied to tradition & ready for new ideas
"A greater recognition of the profit-making part of society and a favoring of their interests" (BJU 118).
"An economic system developing during the decay of feudalism to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by a strict governmental regulation of the entire national economy usually through policies designed to secure an accumulation of bullion, a favorable balance of trade, the development of agriculture and manufactures, and the establishment of foreign trading monopolies" (Webster).
Lutheranism Comes to England
Luther's doctrines reach England in 1520.
Built on foundation of Lollard teaching.
Who were the Lollards? Why did Luther build on this foundation?
Attracted the educated in England, particularly those at Cambridge.
William Tyndale's Contribution
Translated Scripture from Greek to English
Fled England for safety
Betrayed by Henry Philips into hands of Spanish
Strangled then burned for heresy
One year after his death, England is safe for Scripture translation
Miles Coverdale, his assistant, finished the complete Bible translation in 1535.
Separation from Rome by Henry VIII
Henry VIII wanted to divorce wife to produce heir w/Anne Boleyn
Threat of heirlessness reminded English of War of Roses & possible invasion from foreign powers.
England breaks rom Rome in 1534
All church goods & lands were in power of gov't by 1539
Coverdale's translation of Bible sanctioned & licensed by King & Archbishop of Canterbury
Edward VI's Reforms
Act of Uniformity:
Required uniformity of liturgy set forth in the _Common Book of Prayer_.
Instituted public prayers, ceremonies, Scripture readings for holidays, birth, marriage, & death.
Crowned at age 9!
Mary Queen of Scots
Daughter of loyal Catholic, Catherine of Aragon
Sought to restore Catholicism
Also known as Bloody Mary
300+ burned at stake, including Thomas Cranmer
To avoid martyrdom, many fled to Potestant centers in Europe.
Result of exiles:
Produced Geneva Bible (Coverdale & associates)
Compiled John Foxe's "Acts & Monuments" (Book of Martyrs), which was completed in Basel and placed in every Cathedral church.
Elizabeth I: Moderation
Reinstates Protentacism but with moderation
Reforms were moderate and included some elements of Catholicism in "Common Book of Prayer"
Church was required for all citizens on Sundays and Holy Days
Charged shilling for not attending
English Puritans were Anglican reforms believed reform had stopped too soon.
Puritans desired to purify the church from all renmants of Catholicism
rituals w/o biblical justification
They wished to model after the reforms of John Calvin of Geneva.
John Owen, Puritan
English enriched by borrowing heavily from classical & contemporary languages.
New Learning from Italy
Aims of Tudor humanists
Christian-Classical synthesis of education
Tudor Humanist Religious Aims
Concerned with Classical studies to carry on Religious Enlightenment.
Produced translations of ancient texts to English.
Tudor Humanist Scientific Aims
Developed by Sir Francis Bacon
Departed from Aristotelianism's use of axioms & deductive reasoning
Focused on inductive reasoning & science
Tudor Humanists sought order.
Tudor Humanist Moral Aims
They wanted to bring about a properly educated leadership
Established schools for education of children of gentry.
Taught grammar & rhetoric in grade schools
Logic was saved for the university
Students were saturated with the moral instruction of classical moralists & rhetoricians.
Roger Ascham, Tutor to Elizabeth I
Courtly: Thomas Wyatt
Humanistic: Thomas More
Sir Philip Sidney
Major Impacts on Literature:
End of Feudalism
More to read, thus
Elements of Renaissance Lit
Eclectic Renaissance Lit Elements
Composed from several sources: classical, medieval, continental, native, courtly, academic, & popular traditions
Thus, works often hard to classify.
Faerie Queene: epic, romance, & allegorical moral treatise
Shakespeare: uses comic scenes to lighten tragedy; tragic potentialities threaten light-heartedness
David Tennant & Catherine Tate in an adaption of Shakespeare's "Much Ado About Nothing"
Difficulty of Renaissance Literature
requires special arrangement of language & ideas
artificiality of primitive surroundings
shepherds as characters
quaint & distant
idyllic surroundings lead to conflict being found within characters
brings human nature as a theme into focus.
frequent references to classical mythology & history
Didactic Nature of Renaissance Literature
Examples seen in Spenser & Shakespeare
Authors adapt classical authors to teach their own moral applications.
"Literature delights in order to teach."
Sidney claimed poetry oculd better move a person than moral philosophy.
Scene from Shakespeare's MacBeth
Common Book of Prayer
of Renaissance Lit
Sir Thomas More
1. Explain the unreliability of worldly wisdom as a means to the truth
2. Describe the wrong way to persuade.
3. Identify the logical structure and fallacies of More's argument.
Argue what would improve More's argument.
Sir Thomas More
Humanist & Civil Servant
Studied Classics at Oxford
Friend of Erasmus
Most "learned" layman of his day
Publishes "Utopia" in 1516
Lord Chancellor & personal advisor to Henry VIII
Persecuted Protestants & wrote several attacks against Protestantism ("Dialogue Concerning Heresies")
Unwilling to support Henry's divorce of Catherine
efused to sign "Act os Succession"
Accused of high treason & sentenced to death
Some More on More
"Concerning Heresies & Matters of Religion" published as response to Tyndale's "Parable of the Wicked Mammon"
Attacked these ideas:
salvation by faith
priesthood of all believers
Defended these ideas:
Infallibility of the Church
Veneration of saints
Celibacy for the clergy
Heretics should be eradicated
For Thought & Discussion:
1. What does More's companion say that 'others are saying' regarding the teachings of Luther?
2. Why does More use the term "Church of Christ" instead of the Catholic Church"? What is his point in this clause?
3. What name does More call Luther?
What does More point to to prove the validity of church authority?
4. Why does More argue that not every man can teach from Scripture?
5. What does More accuse Luther & Tyndale and their followers of?
6. Read James 2:15-26. What else in the passage can we agree with?
7. What would have caused More's extreme reaction to the doctrine of justification by faith?
8. How did More expect many of those who read and accepted Tyndal's writings to react? Would they be persuaded to change?