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NARRATIVE THERAPY

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ERICA LITTLE

on 6 November 2013

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Transcript of NARRATIVE THERAPY

Notes
Ideas
Ideas
NARRATIVE THERAPY

Introduction
YOUR STORY: Self, coherent identity, & independent thought.
KEY COMPONENTS OF NARRATIVE THERAPY
KEY TERMINOLOGY
Co-Author
Externalize
Discourses
Individual & Relational Levels
Mapping
Thicken & Solidify
Unique Outcomes
Totalizing and Dualistic Thinking
Problem Deconstruction
Intentional vs. Internal State
Scaffolding
Permission

THE KEY PLAYERS AND THEIR STORIES
Michael White (1948-2008): Australian social worker and family therapist who is credited as the creator of narrative therapy. He drew upon literary theory, cultural anthropology, non-structuralist psychology, and post-structuralist philosophy. In 1990, he co-wrote the first book on narrative counseling, Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends.

David Epston (1944-present): New Zealand-based therapist and social worker who co-wrote Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends with Michael White. His creative approaches include letter writing to clients outside of scheduled sessions to further their emerging narratives.
(Gehart, 2013)
By: Erica Little
Sarah Riggs-Courtney
Stephanie Tillman

REFERENCES
THE END
Dominant Discourses

Local Discourses

Alternative Discourses


Co-Author
Co-Editor
A collaborating or joint author.
Dominant Discourses:
culturally generated "norms"
Enriching the person's identity & life accounts. Adding to the problem-saturated story.
How problems affect the individual:
health, emotions, beliefs, etc.
How problems affect the individual relationally: partners, parents, friends, etc.
Ideas
Co-Author
Discourses
Thicken & Solidify
Individual & Relational levels
Unique Outcomes
Also known as "Sparkling Events"
Problem-Saturated story does not play out in a typical way.
Conceptually and Linguistically
separating the person from the problem.
Mapping
Totalizing & Dualistic Thinking
Problem Deconstruction
Intentional vs. Internal State
Scaffolding
Asking Permission
The therapist explores the distressing impact of the problem.
influence of problem on persons.
influence of persons on problem.
Avoid the problem being "all bad";
reducing persons or problems to one set of frustrating responses.
Deconstructive Listening:
listening for "gaps" and details to explain the ambiguities in client stories.





Deconstructive Questions:
helps "unpack" stories and identifies the influence of dominant and local discourses.
Asking the client's intentions in a situation promotes a sense of personal agency.


VS.


Asking a client how they were feeling or thinking in a situation can diminish that sense of agency.
"...moving clients from that which is familiar to that which is novel..."
Emphasizes the democratic nature of the counseling relationship and encourages clients to maintain a strong and clear sense of agency.
Local & Alternative Discourses:
subculture that chooses not to conform to dominant "norms"
Externalize
HISTORICAL RELEVANCE
Based on the work of Australia- and New Zealand-based post-modern therapists, Michael White and David Epston in the 1990's.

Grounded in social constructionist theories, narrative therapy focuses on how constructs related to race, gender, religion, culture, etc. affect a person's sense of self and development of problems.

Postmodernists challenge the belief that the client is the problem, and view the client as distinct and separate. The problem is the problem, not the client.

Stories in a narrative therapy context are made up of events, linked by a theme, occurring over time and according to a plot.

Similar to solution-based approaches, narrative therapy focuses on client strengths and ability to grow, creating a by-product of resilience.

(Gehart, 2013 ; Winslade & Monk, 1999)


(Gehart, 2013; Nichols, 2008)
(Gehart, 2013, p. 293)
"The problem is the problem. The person is not the problem."
Basic Concept
Theory of Change
Deconstruction leads to challenging assumptions.
Externalization separates the person from the problem thus disempowering assumptions and beginning resistance.
By noticing unique outcomes one can create counterplots.

Systemic Basis of Model
Importance placed on understanding psychological difficulties in the context of social relationships allowing clients deconstruct stories around their problems, allowing them to find alternative solutions to resolve them.
Goals of Therapy
To help people separate themselves from problem saturated stories and destructive cultural assumptions and help clients enact their preferred narratives and identities.
Role of Therapist
Investigative Reporter
Coauthor/Coeditor
Optimist and Hopeful
The Counseling Process
Meeting the Person
Listening
Separating Persons from Problems
Enacting Preferred Narratives
Solidifying
(Gehart, 2013)
Progression of Narrative Therapy
Length of Therapy
Major Line of Questioning
(Gehart, 2013)
Beels, C.C. (2009). Some historical conditions of narrative work. Family Process, 48(3), 363–378.
Boston, P. (2000). Systemic family therapy and the influence of post-modernism. Advances in Psychiatric
Treatment, 6, 450-457. doi: 10.1192/apt.6.6.450
Butler, E., Bakker, T., & Viljoen, G. (2013). Poetic and therapeutic encounters in an adolescent drama
group. South African Journal Of Psychology, 43(1), 94-104. doi:10.1177/0081246312474413
Gehart, D. R. (2013). Theory and treatment planning in counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, Calif:
Brooks-Cole/Cengage Learning.
Kim, H., Prouty, A. M., & Roberson, P. N. E. (2012). Narrative therapy with intercultural couples: a case
study. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 23(4), 273-286. doi: 10.1080/08975353.2012.735591
Nichols, M. P. (2008). Family therapy: Concepts and methods. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Payne, M. (2006). Narrative therapy: An introduction for counsellors. London: SAGE Publications.
White, M., & Epston, D. (1990). Narrative means to therapeutic ends. New York: Norton.
Winslade, J. & Monk, G. (1999). Narrative counseling in schools: Powerful and brief. Thousand Oaks, CA
: Corwin Press. In Gehart, D. R. (2013). Theory and treatment planning in counseling and
psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.



THE KEY PLAYERS AND THEIR STORIES

Jill Freedman & Gene Combs (1996-present): Co-directors of the Evanston Family Therapy Center in Ill., this husband- and-wife duo emphasize the process of social construction of realities, and further develop the narrative metaphor.

Gerald Monk & John Winslade (1997-present): Expanded narrative therapy to include school counseling, multicultural counseling, mediation, and consultation. The narrative mediation approach encourages the conflicting parties to tell their personal "story" of the conflict and reach resolution through a profound understanding of the context of their individual stories.
(Gehart, 2013)
(Boston, 2000; Kim 2012)
(Nichols, 2008; Gehart, 2013)
The therapist is to facilitate the process rather than impose assumed expert professional knowledge, the clients are the experts of their own lives.
No set conventions for the length of narrative sessions.
Refer to 'Narrative Therapy: Example Questions' Handout
Assessment and Therapeutic Techniques
Getting Family’s Story: Deconstructive inquiry discovers potential
Mapping influence of the Problem on the Family
Mapping the Family members’ influence on the problem leads to recognizing competence
The therapist almost never makes assumptions or interpretations
Externalizing Conversations
Reauthoring

(Nichols, 2008; White, 1990)
(Gehart, 2013)
Full transcript