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Behavioral Consultation

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Nikki Schreihofer

on 18 April 2015

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Transcript of Behavioral Consultation

Behavioral Consultation
Assumptions of the Model (Bergan's Model)
Research on Effectiveness

4 stages
Important terms
Consultant Skills & Characteristics
7 key features
Theme: representation of unsolved problem that may influence the consultee's expectations
Instrumental Support: Consultant supplies information & resources to the consultee
Empirical-Rational Approach: If data presented showed evidence based practices to be superior, then teachers will adopt the practice because it is in their best interest
Works Cited
The consultation process strengthens the chances that appropriate services will be delivered.

Derived from:
The Theory of Behaviorism - In which psychological theorists such as Watson studied only what could be directly observed and measured.
Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura) has also been used in the development of BC techniques.

Behavior-Operant Model
Developed by Bergan and Kratochwill
Uses problem-solving method that enables consultant
and consultee to: identify, define, analyze the
problem, and evaluate the effectiveness
of the intervention.
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA): The process for gathering information to understand the function (purpose) the behavior is serving
(+) data collection and use of evidence based research can result in documentation of intervention effectiveness
Strengths, Weaknesses & Barriers
Chandler, L. K., & Dahlquist, C. M. (2002). Functional assessment: strategies to prevent and remediate challenging behavior in school settings. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Pearson. ISBN-10: 0-13-142113-1

Crothers, L. M., Hughes, T. L., & Morine, K. A. (2008). Theory and cases in school-based consultation: a resource for school psychologists, school counselors, special educators, and other mental health professionals. New York: Routledge.

Erchul, W. P., & Martens, B. K. (2010). School consultation conceptual and empirical bases of practice (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.

Fagan, T. K., & Wise, P. S. (2007). Roles and functions of school psychologists. In School psychology: past, present, and future 3rd Edition. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/publications/booksproducts/PPFV3%20Ch%204.pdf.
(Erchul & Martens, 2010; Cooper & Heron, 2007; Chandler & Dahlquist, 2002)

Ecological model - views student's behavior as a function of the environment
Goal: allow student to remain in the general education classroom while interventions are put into place
Prereferral Intervention
Case Study: Midwestern School district; 3 year span; Prereferral Intervention for identification of behavior, teacher acting as behavioral consultant, subjects and setting regarding target behavior identified....
Problem Identification Interview
Problem is framed in terms of gap between current and desired performance
Problem Analysis Interview
Establish baseline with data collected
Plan Implementation
Consultant ensures plan is being implemented as agreed upon
Problem Evaluation Interview
Determine plan effectiveness
Problem Identification Interview (PII)
Problem Analysis Interview (PAI)
Plan Implementation
Problem Evaluation Interview (PEI)
Steps for Implementation
Specify concerns in an objective and measurable way.
Identify the context of the problem; environmental observation
Establish goals - short, intermediate, and long term
(Erchul & Martens, 2010; Rosenfield,2007)
(Erchul & Martens, 2010)
(Erchul & Martens, 2010)
Were goals met?
Continuation, modification, or termination of intervention
Terminate consultation or schedule follow up meetings
Determine if consultee has proper skills to implement the intervention
Monitor plan implementation & data collection
(Erchul & Martens, 2010)
No formal interview; a series of brief contacts
Establish Antecedent, Consequences & Setting Events
Antecedent: Environmental events that occur prior to or are concurrent with challenging or appropriate behavior
Consequence: Events that follow a behavior.
Setting Events: Situational or contextual factors that influence how a student responds to antecedents and consequences.
Select data collection method
Verbal and non-verbal cues
Warmth, empathy, and genuine respect
Nonverbal Cues
SOLER; face the person Squarely, Open posture, Lean towards the consultee, Eye contact, Relaxed posture
Verbal Cues
Restating verbalizations
Do not use judgement
Use of specific/concrete descriptions to better understand the problem
Reciprocal determinism
Consultant and consultee influences

(+) Can be preventive in nature when mental health or educational specialists assist teachers in learning strategies to manage future

(-/+) Consultee's perception of the consultant, professional experience, ethnic background, personality, and the mood of the consultee.

(-/+) Is predominantly used to deal with immediate
behavior problem of a child or adolescent.

(-) Lack of consultant training, difficulty in identifying
the target behaviors, and lack of consultee training.
Consultee Skills and Characteristics
Consultee's Perception of the Consultant
Professional Experience
Ethnic Background
Mood of the Consultee
Effectiveness CBC
Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC)
Teachers, parents and consultants work collaboratively to address:
Behavioral Functioning
Effective for childhood and adolescent disorders
Four Goals of CBC:
Sharing Responsibility for problem
Improving communication
Obtaining practical information
Improving skills
Steps for Implementing CBC
Conjoint Problem Identification
Conjoint Problem Analysis
Conjoint Treatment Implementation
Conjoint Treatment Evaluation

Parents and teachers consistently find CBC to be an effective form of delivery
It was found that consultant can interview consultees effectively within a partnership
CBC will be effective if resources for both parties (teachers & parents) are identified
Effectiveness of BC
1. Consultee is an active participant in the process
2. Problem solving skills can be developed by the consultee & client
3. Knowledge provided by consultant
4. Decision are based on observations and scientific findings
5. Problems presented lie outside of the client.
6. Environmental factors control behavior; changes in environment = changes in behavior
7. Evaluation is focused on goal attainment and plan effectiveness not client's characteristics
Behavioral Consultation applies social learning theory and behavior modification principles to the consultee. The problem is seen as an unacceptable (challenging) behavior.
Main characteristic is the structured interaction between consultant and consultee.

Parameters of behavior
Client characteristics
Nature of observations
Previous interventions
Additional data
Areas identified
Case Study
14 year old with Aspergers
Victim of teasing and bullying
Teases and bullies others
Difficulty coping (verbal & physical outbursts)
Difficulty understanding friendship
Academic anxiety
Meltdown or behavioral outburst
1. Describe the steps in the behavioral consultation process that you, as the consultant, would use to assess the problem
2. Name some interventions that could be used to help Nick cope with anxious feelings in the classroom setting
3. Considering the implementation stage, what are some barriers that may affect the teacher's ability to implement the intervention
• Empirical evidence demonstrates in single-case study designs, BC is effective in promoting positive behavior changes.

• It is difficult to measure to measure effectiveness due to such a small sample size.

• Other issues in measuring effectiveness is due to issues with replication, treatment integrity, and clearly identifiable procedures.
In a review of 18 parent consultation studies, in which academic, social and emotional, and behavioral concerns were targeted, it was found that the CBC model was more effective than were other forms of BC.
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Erchul & Martens, 2010;
Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Erchul & Martens, 2010; Rosenfield, 2007)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
Garbacz, S. A., Woods, K. E., Swanger-Gagné, M. S., Taylor, A. M., Black, K. A., & Sheridan, S. M. (2008). The Effectiveness Of A Partnership-centered Approach In Conjoint Behavioral Consultation.. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(3), 313-326.

Guli, L. A. (2005). Evidence-based parent consultation with school-related outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly, 20, 455-472.

Rosenfield (2007) Best practices in instructional consultation and instructional consultation teams. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds. Best practices in school psychology V. Bethesda, MD: NASP.
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Noll, Kamps, & Seaborn, 1993)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008; Garbacz, Woods, Swanger-Gagné, Taylor, Black, & Sheridan, 2008)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
(Rosenfield, 2007; Cooper & Heron, 2007;
Crothers, Hughes, & Morine, 2008)
A form of assessment that involves a full range of inquiry methods to identify probable antecedent and consequent controlling variables. Behavioral assessment is designed to discover resources, maintenance and factors, and possible reinforce and/or punishers that surround the potential target behavior.
Change in behavior; change in organization
Partnership Orientation Measure used to measure themes of partnership within CBC
Characteristics of Prereferral intervention: consultation, collaboration, problem solving teams
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