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Transcript of portfolio assessment
2.GOALS: At the beginning of the semester, take a few minutes during class time to discuss learning goals for the period. There should only be two or three goals, as any more than that would be unrealistic to really focus on for achievement, and any less would not be enough for accurate well-rounded assessment of student learning.
3. Students must understand the standards. For students to understand the standards, they need to know what they are expected to learn during the stipulated period (e.g. two weeks or a term). Expectations should be clearly defined. For instants does teacher require a table of contents? To increase accountability and productivity of work, be sure the students know that a mid-semester assessment of these goals will occur, just to see how things are going. At that time the goals may be altered slightly if they turned out to be less realistic than they seemed. Portfolio Implementation
A portfolio in the classroom setting is a collection of work that the student has completed over time. It is a depiction of what the student has learned, and what they think and feel about what they have learned. The purpose of these portfolios is to increase student ownership of learning, accountability, and motivation to continue. AS200 Definition/ Description 4.REGULAR CHECK-UPS: Revisit and reassess goals at mid semester. Take some class time to give students the chance to go through past assignments and decide what they feel is an accurate representation of improvements on their goals. Any unreasonable goals can be tweaked at this point and altered to better suit the students' abilities if necessary. The point of the portfolio is to set each student up for success, not failure.
5.SELF-REFLECTION: Regularly have students write a self reflection based on their progress towards success and the achievement of their goals. They can include accomplishments, what they would like to do differently next time, etc. Students must understand what it means to reflect. Beyond purely assessment, reflection asks students to describe what they learned.
6.SEAMLESS INTEGRATION: The portfolio can be seamlessly integrated into instruction and students’ past goals reviewed at each stage. (e.g. in term one then term two or form one then form two). Based on the student's self assessment and accomplishment of past goals, the teacher and the student will decide if they should advance that goal, create new goals if previous goals were mastered, or continue with the same goals if results were not satisfactory. This teaches the students how to make goals, assess the quality and probability of them, alter them to make them more achievable, and then create new goals built and based off previous ones. This is a valuable life skill that has outside-of-the-classroom application. EditTips
Using this technique over a larger amount of time than one school year allows students to look back on their very first assignment in grade ten (or nine) that they felt was particularly well done at the time, and compare it to something they see as well produced work now, and can then view the jump in improvement from then until now.
If a student is able to view a more drastic change in improvement, they are more likely to become motivated to keep working because they can actually see that they are capable of noticeable progress. Setting goals, written reflections on the process, and assigning a personal grade increases student cooperation and involvement in, and taking ownership of, personal learning. Goal setting (with teacher assistance) results in achievement, achievement meets feeling of accomplishment and pride, and pride meets motivation to keep going and to try harder, building a positive feedback loop and an increase in optimal learning. By increasing student involvement in their own grade, creating their own goals, and reflecting on their work increases accountability and ownership of personal learning.
Students with more motivation to succeed because they have proof that they are capable of it are more likely to come to class and participate and actually try. A student who feels as if they are failing might just give up and not try anymore, so the point of the portfolios is to set students up for academic success to keep them coming to class.
When you meet with students individually, they see that you are taking time out to talk to them personally, get to know what their skill levels are, and learn a bit more about what they want to achieve from your class. They see that their opinion does matter to you, and that you are there to help them succeed, not fail. By simply doing this, and checking up on them again mid-semester, you get the opportunity to build a better rapport with your students, and hopefully create a better classroom environment with more participation and involvement. Warnings
•This project does take out of some class time that could be used for teaching the curriculum. However it is a student-centered project. Students that don't come to class because they feel like they can't achieve anything are suffering from learned-helplessness, which is a downward spiral. A student not in class, or physically present but cognitively absent, are not learning anyways which could be more of a waste of time. As teachers it is our responsibility to do whatever it takes to increase student productivity and desire to learn. All this takes is a few minutes per student to create goals, a check up mid-semester on progress, and sitting with students individually at the end of the semester to see how the semester went. Why not increase personal relationships and rapport with each student if you can? Make them feel like you care!
•Involves coordination and agreement between all of the teachers involved to make sure expectations and execution are consistent.
•Grading is always subjective. What one teacher feels deserves 5/5, another teacher may not. Consistency in grading is important. By creating an agreed-upon rubric with clear expectations that is suitable for all students in English in High School, fair and consistent grading is more achievable.
Barrett identified five steps inherent in the development of effective electronic portfolios:
1.Selection: the development of criteria for choosing items to include in the portfolio based on established learning objectives.
2.Collection: the gathering of items based on the portfolio's purpose, audience, and future use.
3.Reflection: statements about the significance of each item and of the collection as a whole.
4.Direction: a review of the reflections that looks ahead and sets future goals.
5.Connection: the creation of hypertext links and publication, providing the opportunity for feedback. Characteristics of Portfolio Assessment
A portfolio is a purposeful collection of a child’s
work across multiple environments.
Portfolio assessment provides a complex,
comprehensive, and meaningful portrait of the
It provides coherent documentation of a child’s
progress over time.
It documents a child’s functioning in authentic,
meaningful tasks that are part of daily routines.
It recognizes the child’s active participation in
the construction of his or her own knowledge
and the effects of the social context on learning.
It provides documentation of a child’s learning
processes and ways of constructing knowledge.
It is both child originated and adult guided. GUIDELINES FOR APPROPRIATE USE OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT METHOD
1.Spend time to introduce portfolios to the students. They need an overview of what is involved.
2.Determine the purpose of the portfolio. The type of portfolio to be used and the purpose it will serve is important. A development portfolio will require feedback be given at different stages while a best works portfolio will be summative and the end product is what will be required.
3.Determine the items or pieces to be included in the portfolio and be specific about the objectives or learning outcomes of each piece or item
4.Plan sufficient time for students to prepare and discuss portfolio items. Appropriate timelines for each piece or item can be worked out. Adjustments may be made later if changes are necessary.
5.Establish standards by which assessments will be carried out, who will do the assessments and when they will be done. The criteria for assessment must be :
•Appropriate for the age and grade of students
•Appropriate for content area covered
•Observable and clearly identifiable
6.Ensure that the scoring rules are made available to students
7.Specify the materials and resources to be used and provide guidelines on how they are to be used.
8.Plan evaluation and review exercises. This will assist in improving the quality of portfolios for the next time. Designing and Implementing a Portfolio Program
The following set of questions is designed to help teachers and administrators at any level consider all the issues and possibilities in the course of designing and implementing a portfolio program. They are currently framed slightly more in the context of creating a portfolio for graduation or grade promotion, but can just as easily be adapted to the individual classroom or project level. Be aware that every question does not need to be answered in order to design a successful portfolio.
• What academic artifacts should students collect? (Should they collect everything or specified things?)
• What non-academic artifacts should students collect? (Information about jobs, family, friends, travel, athletics, etc.)
• What about work that doesn't have an obvious artifact like community service projects or field trips; how does one "collect" these?
• What about unwieldy artifacts such as artwork or artifacts that can't be moved, like murals and science lab work?
• What about audio, video, and digital work?
• Where and in what type of container will all this work be collected?
• How will it be organized? By subject, by year, by themes…?
• How do we get students to habitually document and collect their work?
• For what and for whom is the portfolio? What is its purpose and who is the audience?
• Should it contain only a student's best work or should it reflect growth?
• What parameters, if any, will be placed on a student's portfolio? Must there be a certain number of artifacts? Must there be artifacts that demonstrate a student's proficiency in or knowledge of some important skills/subjects/experiences? Must the artifacts meet a certain level of quality?
• Who else, besides the student, will be involved in the selection process? To what degree should teachers/advisors/parents/peers have a say in what is and is not final portfolio material?
• Will there be activities specific to the portfolio, such as autobiographical, career related, or college planning exercises?
• How often should students go through the selection process? Once a month? Every semester? Once a year? How much time will they have to select? How will it fit into the school schedule?
• Will the portfolio be required for grade promotion or graduation?
• What about students who fail to properly collect their work, or who have not been productive; what are the consequences for not completing the portfolio?
• Will students with special needs compile portfolios and in what ways will they differ, if at all?
• Should students reflect on how or why they chose their artifacts?
• Should students reflect on what skills and knowledge they used to produce each artifact?
• Should students reflect on their strengths and weaknesses as learners based on the artifacts in their portfolio?
• How should students go about the reflection process? In writing, orally, both? In general or for each artifact? Perhaps there might be a reflection form? Or a different form for different kinds of artifacts?
• Who else, besides the student, will be involved in the reflection process?
• How will students effectively reflect on traditional quizzes and tests?
• Can students make up for a poor quality artifact with high quality reflection?
• By this point, a student has collected, selected, and reflected; so what?
• How do we evaluate the cumulative effects of the portfolio process? How might students demonstrate these effects?
• Perhaps its time to go public: Should students present or exhibit their portfolios to an audience?
• If so, who is the audience? Teachers, parents, peers, community, college admissions people, business people, politicians, the press, benefactors…?
• When is the exhibition? Where? Just seniors? Or will the rest of the students have a role? Should there be individual presentations, a class exhibition, or both?
• Will there be guidelines, i.e., presentation length, a required area of focus, written, visual and oral components, a table or booth, etc.?
• Will the exhibition be evaluated? Who will evaluate and based on what criteria? Instances of Use of Portfolio Assessment
- A program used to enhance a child’s social skills in the effort of increasing assertiveness or decreasing aggression. The portfolio assessment of each child must be tailored to his or her own individual needs and objectives. The involvement of the community and the wider world is necessary as the child is an integral part. Therefore through their interaction with those around them any changes observed over time will be a direct reflection of their choices in everyday life. After a portfolio has been constructed, it opens avenues that ensure adequate communication and accountability to a number of persons which include participants, their families and other members of the community who may be more appreciative of visual or experiential evidence of success.
- The implementation and use of portfolio assessment for a group of tertiary level students who are trying to earn a teacher’s college certificate. Portfolio assessment will allow the student teachers to create a time stamp as to when they began the process of learning. It’s a method of monitoring one’s progress and declaring that progress to the wider world or rather those who have a genuine interest in factual information that would show a student’s progression. Advantages of Portfolio Assessment
•It enables students to engage in self assessment and self reflection of their studies and learning, and to review their progress.
•It provides visual and dynamic proof about students’ interests, their skills, strong
sides which helps the teacher to plan which activities are most suitable to the needs of the child.
•Portfolio is a strong device that help students to gain the important abilities
such as self-assessment, critical thinking and monitoring one’s own learning
•Encourages students to participate in the assessment process actively.
•Places student at the center of the teaching process, it enables students to direct teaching.
•Portfolio provides multiple ways of assessing students’ learning.
•It provides for a more realistic evaluation of academic content than pencil-and
•It allows students, parent, teacher and staff to evaluate the students’ strengths and
•It provides multiple opportunities for observation and assessment
•It provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate his/her strengths as well
•It encourages students to develop some abilities needed to become independent,
•It also helps parents see themselves as partners in the learning process.
•It allows students to express themselves in a comfortable way and to assess their
own learning and growth as learners.
•It encourages students to think of creative ways to share what they are learning
•It increases support to students from their parents and enhances communication
among teachers, students and parents.
•It encourage teachers to change their instructional practice and it is a powerful
way to link curriculum and instruction with assessment.
•Portfolios help students to build self confidence as they assume responsibility for learning
and monitoring their own work.
•Promotes greater student-parent collaboration as students discuss their work with their parents.
•Provide students some degree of freedom to focus on their interests of study.
•Since students work at their own pace, teachers can focus on the needs of individual students. Limitations of Portfolio Assessment
•It can be quite difficult to establish scoring systems that are reliable.
• Scoring a portfolio may be seen as less reliable or fair than multiple choices test scores due to the subjective nature of scorers and difficulty establishing scoring criteria.
•Is very time consuming for teachers to score students’ works and to assess students’ performance in the crowded classroom
•Like any other form of qualitative data, it may be difficult to analyze.
•Developing portfolio assessment criteria, rubrics, and determining the works in portfolios can be difficult for teachers at first.
•Organizing and assessing the portfolio and giving feedback to students can be time consuming
•Difficult to store, to handle and to control the portfolios in the classroom
•It may be difficult for the teacher to control outside influences such as
parental assistance and access to resources like computers.
•Parents may have difficulty in accepting this form of assessment.
•Portfolio assessment offers the opportunity for depth but not breath with regard to material covered. Incorporation of portfolio assessment in the business studies curriculum.
The Portfolio must show product of students work
The portfolio should clearly show product of students’ work and not a demonstration of knowledge. Therefore, the samples that are included in a portfolio should demonstrate an attempt at constructing and sharing experiences. “Specifically, the portfolio assessment espouses the notion of learning as constructing and sharing that underlines an active involvement of learners to construct their portfolio (Matusevich, 1995).”
When to incorporate the portfolio
Portfolios may be incorporated at any point in the lesson but since it is used to generate a product and not test knowledge, it may be beneficial to expose students to the subject matter before attempting to have the students use the knowledge meaningfully, and create items that may be used as samples in the portfolio.
Form of presentation of portfolio
The teacher in collaboration with the students will decide what topics and forms of presentation to include in the curriculum. The form of presentation can be chosen from the following list and several options should be considered to match the various learning styles of the students:
1. essays and reports
3. research papers
4. case studies
9. Journals and logs
10. Videotapes of student performances
11. Audiotapes of presentations
12. samples of interviews
13. Mind maps and notes
14. Group reports
15. Tests and quizzes
16. Charts, graphs
17. Lists of books read
18. Questionnaire results 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Portfolio Assessment Defined As Assessment, a Portfolio is a purposeful collection of a student’s work that reflects, tells the story of and examines the student’s effort, improvement and achievement.
The student participates in selection of portfolio content, criteria for selection and judging merit .
Portfolio Described Demonstrates student’s mastery of the curriculum objectives.
Spans any period of time
Dedicated to one or many subjects
Table of Contents
Introduction to the Portfolio
Sectional/Topical Collection or Display of student’s work
e.g. EDPM Portfolio (Manual)
Teacher’s Comments and Portfolio Grade sheet
Portfolios may vary in size, however a good Portfolio should not exceed 50 pages.
Types of Portfolios WORKING PORTFOLIO
DISPLAY (Also Showcase or Best Works) Portfolio
DISPLAY (Also Showcase or Best Works) Portfolio
The display of the student’s best works – (student’s pride and accomplishment)
* Uses: Parent conferencing or showcasing at school’s open day
* Useful in formative evaluations, it contains samples of student’s work with teacher’s feedback
* Identifies student ‘s weakness and provides for improvement on work
Includes draft of work and the improved assignment (after teacher’s feedback)
* Serves to promote developmental skills, the learning progress and growth of the student
*A complete record of student’s achievement for review by student and teacher
* Can include:
- class work and tests
- Handouts and other
Uses specific pieces of student’s work to assess his/her learning
Used to give student a grade
Guided by clear and specific scoring criteria (applied to all similar portfolios)
Sample of Document to include in Portfolio :
Topic to be investigated and topic statement or question
Essay; Research; Graphs and charts; Projects; case study; Questionnaire results:
“Advertising increases the price of a product.”
Interview; Mind map; Essay; Research Paper; Questionnaire:
The employees of XBG Enterprise, a gold mining firm, are on strike for over two months, investigate the causes, actions taken by all involved and consequences of this strike.
Audiotapes; stories; group report; video
Meetings: The Annual General Meeting of Stylish Environmental Club …
Guiding students - through questioning
Students may be provided with a set of questions or will be involved in teacher’s conference, before and or after completion of the portfolio sample, to guide their thinking or aid in reflection. These questions can fall into any of the following six categories.
1.Conceptual clarification questions
3.Probing rationale, reasons and evidence
4.Questioning viewpoints and perspectives
5.Probe implications and consequences
6.Questions about the question
Conceptual clarification questions
These questions get students to think more about and prove what they are saying. Examples of these questions are;
Why are you saying that?
Can you give me an example?
Are you saying ... or ... ?
What exactly does this mean?
How does this relate to …?
What do we already know about this?
Probing assumptions promotes students thinking about any unquestioned beliefs on which they are making their argument.
What else could we assume?
You seem to be assuming ... ?
How did you choose those assumptions?
Please explain why/how ... ?
How can you verify or disprove that assumption?
What would happen if ... ?
Probing rationale, reasons and evidence
Deeply probe students reasoning rather than assuming it is a given. People often use un-thought-through or weakly-understood supports for their arguments.
Why is that happening?
How do you know this?
What do you think causes ... ?
Are these reasons good enough?
How can I be sure of what you are saying?
What evidence is there to support what you are saying?
Questioning viewpoints and perspectives
Most arguments are given from a particular position. So attack the position. Show that there are other, equally valid, viewpoints.
Why it is ... necessary?
Who benefits from this?
What is the difference/similarity between... and...?
Why is it better than ...?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of...?
What would ... say about it?
Probe implications and consequences
Help students to assess the reasonableness of arguments put forward by asking questions to probe logical implications
Then what would happen?
What are the consequences of that assumption?
How does ... affect ... ?
How does ... fit with what we learned before?
Why is ... important?
What is the best ... ? Why?
Questions about the question
Here the teacher uses questioning to help students reflect on their responses.
What was the point of asking that question?
Why do you think I asked this question?
Am I making sense? Why not?
What else might I ask?
What does that mean?