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Causes of the Civil War
Transcript of Causes of the Civil War
Missouri Enters the Union
The Missouri Compromise
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Law
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Ostend Manifesto &
the Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Beating of Senator Charles Sumner
The Sad Case of Dred Scott
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry, Va
Election of 1860
By 1819: 7 new states west of the Appalachian Mountains
the Ohio River was the dividing line:
North of the river, no slaves
South of the river, yes slaves
1819: Alabama & Missouri apply for statehood
Alabama is no problem; obviously a slave state
Missouri was a problem; most of Missouri lay north of the point where the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi.
If Missouri was allowed to enter as a slave state, what about the rest of Louisiana Territory???
Rep. James Tallmadge proposed an amendment.
The only way Northern politicians would allow Missouri to enter the Union was as a FREE STATE
Southerners argued that this violated states rights - congress had no power to impose their will on states
North voted yes on the Tallmadge Amendment - South blocked it.
Henry Clay - "The Great Compromiser"
Clay proposes : Missouri enters as slave and MAINE enters as free
Also establishes the 36°30' line -
north of the line will be free
south of the line will be slave
No one is happy with this.
Predictions: the Union would dissolve
Congress keeps pushing the issue aside.
stricter laws to control movement of slaves - demanded by southern slave-owners
1846 - Pres. Polk asks for $$ to fund Mexican-American War
if we give you $$, no slavery in any of the lands won from Mexico - EVER.
CA applies for statehood.
Clay again.... His proposal:
What to do????
1. CA enters as a free state.
2. New Mexico & Utah would be "open" to slavery through
3. Ends slave trade in D.C.
most accepted the compromise.
THE UNION IS DISSOLVED!!!!!
Both sides unhappy with the new law.
The North didn't want to enforce it.
The South said it
didn't go far enough.
What it said:
1. a runaway slave had no rights
2. anyone who helped a runaway could be jailed
Lots of Northern opposition to the new law
which made southerners furious! Northerners should help us!
Didn't really work. Out of the tens of thousands of runaway slaves, only 299 were ever returned to slavery.
A book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1851
Who was Harriet?
daughter of a Northern preacher
she never witnessed slavery first hand, but because of the Fugitive Slave Act she was very aware of the horrors of slavery.
"I feel now that the time is come when even a woman or a child who can speak a word for freedom and humanity is bound to speak... I hope every woman who can write will not be silent."
Southerners were outraged at what Stowe wrote; claimed it to be false.
Northerners were disgusted with the descriptions.
"so you're the little lady that started this great war?"
Both these events infuriated Northerners
The Ostend Manifesto
a secret message from 3 diplomats to Pres. Pierce
it said: "seize Cuba by force!"
Northerners claimed it was Pierce's gov't trying to gain another slave state
Senator Stephan Douglas wanted a Rail Road to California
1st step: organize Nebraska Territory into States
but the bill said nothing about slavery - Why???
because the territory lay NORTH of the Missouri Compromise Line
...and those states were...
southerners refused to support it, UNLESS Douglas changed it
How did Douglas change the bill?
scrapped the Missouri Compromise
new states would use
Northerners were scared, angry and worried
after the Kansas-Nebraska Act, settlers flooded Kansas
Most were peaceful farmers
BUT some moved to either support or protest slavery.
Before long, Kansas had TWO competing governments
ONE PRO-SLAVERY & ONE ANTI-SLAVERY
"BORDER RUFFIANS" w/ pro-slavery settlers invade Lawrence, KS
Lawrence was burned & looted - "Sacked"
More "FREE-SOILERS" called to settle KS
Who is this guy?
John Brown was a "militant" abolitionist
Brown, 4 of his sons, & 3 followers entered the pro-slavery town of POTTAWATOMIE. The dragged 5 men from their homes and hacked them to death with swords.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act angered Anti-Slavery Senators - Like Charles Sumner.
The Crime Against Kansas!
it was a passionate speech.
Why did he speak for so long?
no one knew, but copies were distributed all over the North
Obviously, Southerners were mad - especially Sen. Preston Brooks
during the speech, Sumner had attacked a senator named Andrew Butler.
2 days later, Butler's Nephew - Brooks - attacked Sumner with a cane
beat him 'till the cane broke - left him unconscious, cracked skill, bloody
Southerners were proud!
the case of Missouri slave named Dred Scott
years earlier, Scott went w/ his owner to Wisconsin (free)
when the returned to Missouri - he went to court to win his freedom.
What did the 9 Justices have to decide?
5 justices from the South (inc. Chief Justice Roger Taney), 4 from the North.
1. was a slave a citizen w/ the right to bring a case to court?
2. if yes, did his time in Wisconsin make him free?
3. Taney wanted to solve the "slavery controversy. He asked, "Does congress have the power to make any laws concerning slavery in the territories?
Taney was 80 at the time.
opposed to slavery
had freed all his own slaves
would he free Scott as well?
Scott couldn't bring a case to court b/c he wasn't nor ever could become a citizen.
no African-American could ever become a citizen
ruled the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
Why? B/c slaves were "Property" and property can't be taken away w/o due process of law. outlawing slavering in the territories was taken property away from slave owners w/o due process
"A wicked and false judgement!"
With the election of Lincoln,
Southern states decided it was the final straw
South Carolina voted to leave the Union.
over the next few months, all southern states would secede.
John C. Breckinridge:
Lincoln vows to restore the Union. Believes it can NEVER be broken