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Implementation of the masterplan of Lyon

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Olivier Gilles DURAND

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Implementation of the masterplan of Lyon

implementation of the
masterplan of lyon through
urban projects

selected examples... LEVEL 2 (local strategy)
pUBLIC tools for implementation LEVEL 3 (operational)
implementing through urban projects selected
examples level 1 (overall strategy)
selected objectives of the LYON masterplan public transportation projects

land use plan (LUP/PLU) and other plans (transportation, housing, sustainable strategy, etc.)

strategy of land purchase & control background
1/ DIAGNOSTIC: mono-use site (big derelict shopping centre), surrounded by almost 100% social housing , no market for private investment (housing, retail), lack of public transport, no connection to the city centre, no quality buildings or public space

2/ OBJECTIVES: create a secondary pole of development, social mix, diversity of urban forms, mixed-use development

3/ IMPLEMENTATION (mainly 1995-2005) massive public funding and strong partnership between key public players (State, Region, GL, town, Sytral) to initiate market trends and create social mix and architectural quality
creation of a ZAC (purchase of overall land)
strategic & detailed urban study by renowned architect = LAP (PAZ-PLU)
phase 1: development of public transport (bus), public space (retail street), secondary school, public owned mixed-use developments (social & affordable housing - high architectural quality) to create conditions for private investment
phase 2: inviting private mixed-use developments (land purchase at very low price)
phase 3: attracting private investors, existence of a residential market = private mixed-use developments (land purchase at higher price, private dwellings)
phase 4: ZAC suppressed - projects developed by market only through LUP/PLU 1/6 VAULX EN VELIN ZAC DU CENTRE
process 1 - creating the market The same overall strategy can lead to different processes. Guiding questions:
what public involvement & investment for what impact and where? (e.g. process 1 requires massive public funding yet only 10% of new housing in Lyon may be produced within ZAC perimeters
is there a market?
should future projects be controlled in every detail?
what limited public actions could create certainty & confidence to attract or guide private investment?
less financial resources for the public sector and increase of land value
process 1 & process 2 require very different methods, resources & skills, which are to be existing within public sector staff
process 3 is very important (90% of new housing in Lyon) and then so is the LUP/PLU (specific skills too)
overall: urban development is a combination of those 3 processes where strategy, methods, skills, detailed planning & development frameworks, continuity & coherence between strategy & implementation, strong partnership between public authorities and between private & public sectors are required FIrst questions 2/6 decines zac fraternite
process 1 - guiding the market 1/ DIAGNOSTIC: no town centre, no connexion with city centre / bad public transports, no public space, low density

2/ OBJECTIVES: use public transport as a leverage for urban development (density along transport corridors), create a mixed-use town centre (small secondary pole), consolidate social diversity in the first phases

3/ IMPLEMENTATION: significant public funding to initiate overall urban and environmental quality and initiate market trends
creation of a tramway corridor + station (partnership with Sytral)
perimeter of study (LUP/PLU) to freeze planning permissions & land value
creation of ZAC Fraternité, appointment of a semi-public operator to manage project, purchase of overall land, appointment of a masterplan architect + detailed definition of the project
translation of the project into the LUP/PLU
consultation to appoint team of private developers & architects
delivery of public infrastructure by semi-public operator
planning permissions compliant with LUP/PLU, phased buildings delivery level 2 first challenges
1/ control of land value and good timing are paramount:

public transportation projects contribute to increase land value (attracting private investment vs implementation of public policies ex. affordable housing)
tools within the Land Use Plan (PLU) enable to freeze and control land value for several years (no planning permission allowed)

2/ level 2 is crucial to generate confidence & certainty

a realistic and clear approach contributes to attract private investors (public investment increases confidence)
crucial to identify what is possible and what is not, what is required in terms of compliance with public policies to make sure that the objectives of the public sector will be delivered level 3 - PROCESS 1 (public led) appointment of a multidisciplinary team (strategic studies, etc.)
program definition : quantum of housing + public infrastructure required (transportation, schools, etc.)
financial engineering & public funds in place
DP/PLU: 1st evolution (specific perimeter to freeze planning permissions)
ZAC creation
consultation to appoint semi-public operator to manage project & site
detailed studies = operational project
translation of the project into the LUP/PLU
land purchase by public sector (DUP if necessary) from the start of the process
public works (including public space, transportation infrastructure) to create urban quality and attract investors
consultation to appoint team of private developers / architects
planning permissions compliant with LUP/PLU & delivery of buildings
process 1 (traditionally, public led): large scale urban projects, development site & project under public control (ex. ZAC)

process 2 (more recently, public-private partnership): large scale private projects on private owned lands = some public actions required - roads, public space, schools, Land Use Plan adjustment (ex. PAE, PUP, PPP)

process 3 (always, private led): small scale private projects compliant with the Land Use Plan, developed on private owned lands on a day-to-day basis, with no public action required in terms of public infrastructure or land purchase level 3 - process 2 (private led) consultation to appoint a multidisciplinary team : urban studies (public)
first evolution of PLU/DP to freeze planning permissions & clearly identify objectives of public policies
development sites under private control - no purchase of land by public sector (except very strategic portion of land)
negotiations with private stakeholders and developers to define projects on each plot (private consultation to appoint architects, etc.), ensure compliance with public policies & approach public and private financial contributions toward cost of public infrastructure (PAE, PUP, PPP)
when agreed, final evolution of LUP/PLU
public infrastructure works by public sector
planning permissions & buildings delivery by private sector 3/6 carre de soie
process 2 (+ 1) 1/ DIAGNOSTIC: huge industrial site in dereliction, no market for housing, retail or office development, bad connexion with city centre, no public transports, no public space, low density

2/ OBJECTIVES: use public transport as a leverage for urban development, create a mixed-use major sub-center, consolidate social diversity in the first phases

3/ IMPLEMENTATION: combination of processes with mixed results
creation of a public transportation hub (metro + tram - strong partnership with Sytral) contributing to attract office development
public-led strategic studies
limited purchase of land (private projects to fit into overall strategy)
phase 1= negotiation with private sector (shopping centre = quality?), private-led studies, LUP/PLU adjustments accordingly, costly public actions in terms of public infrastructure
phase 2 = more traditional process to control the project: public led studies for ZAC creation ('Yoplait' project), LUP/PLU to be modified accordingly, etc. 1/ DIAGNOSTIC: no real mixed-use town centre, existing strong market for housing development, lack of social & affordable housing, existing public transports yet bad connexion to city centre, poor public space, risk of undesired urban development

2/ OBJECTIVES: create a mixed-use town centre, consolidate social diversity in the first phases, consolidate public transport and alternative modes (pedestrian, bikes...), working with the private stakeholders and developers (no public pruchase of land), improve urban quality of life

3/ IMPLEMENTATION: bad governance / partnership leads to bad implementation of overall strategy
creation of a PAE (public works for public infrastructure & public space, private works for building developments)
translation of program into LUP/PLU
poor governance with no improvement / disturbance of public transport decided by town council + delays in public space definition (social uses, etc.) = no leverage to boost private purchase of land & site development
limited impact despite investment of the Greater Lyon in terms of resources (purchase of land for public works, studies) , processes (LUP/PLU, DUP, PAE), time, energy & skills 4/6 CALUIRE PAE DU CENTRE
process 2 - PPP 5/6 DARDILLY process 1 with limited public funding 1/ DIAGNOSTIC: no mixed-use town centre, strong market for housing, lack of social diversity, poor public transport (not located on a public transport corridor), poor connections for pedestrians and bikes, public owned land (town council's long term strategy regarding land purchase)

2/ OBJECTIVES: create a mixed-use small town-center, impossible to improve public transportation system here, create strong social diversity (30% social housing + 25% affordable housing), consolidate urban quality = benefit from market strength to finance public objectives

significant public involvement & funding in terms of preliminary studies but not so much in terms of works, land purchase & project management
crucial step: public consultation (very detailed consultation program) to appoint an operator under public sector's control ('concession d'aménagement')in charge of managing the project (land purchase, public infrastructure + buildings)
public sector keeps control on the project : LUP/PLU + planning permissions + contract with operator (PUP + concession d'aménagement), no need for a ZAC because there is a market 6/6 charbonnieres
process 2 'light touch?' 1/ DIAGNOSTIC: large site owned by the Region Council willing to sale, very strong market for housing, site not connected to its surrounding (town centre), lack of social diversity, poor public transport (not located on a public transport corridor), poor connections for pedestrians and bikes

2/ OBJECTIVES: create a mixed-use neighbourhood, impossible to improve public transportation system here, create strong social diversity (30% social housing + affordable housing), consolidate urban quality, achieve SCOT targets in terms of density (min. 30 dwellings/ha), social diversity (30% social housing), green space & landscape consolidation = benefit from market strength to finance public objectives

3/ IMPLEMENTATION: process not under GL control, for what result ? (only starting...)
1st evolution of the PLU to define first strategic orientations (partnership between public authorities)
the Region Council is leading the process of consultation in order to sale its land to a private operator that will be developing mixed-use buildings
GL invited to contribute to the consultation program and to future negotiations with candidates
GL will proceed to the final adjustment of the DP / PLU according to the selected project
GL will deliver public infrastructure to facilitate the project (significant cost for which overall impact)
objective: make sure that strategic objectives (SCOT, LUP/PLU) of public policies (social mix, environment & green space, etc.) are delivered by private sector consolidate attractivity: jobs, urban quality, environment
balanced development: creation of sub-centers + densification along public transports corridors
housing production (7 000 / year)
social mix (social & affordable) carré de soie shopping centre 1/6 vaulx en velin zac du centre
process 1 - creating the market 2/6 decines zac fraternite
process 1 -guiding the market 3/6 carre de soie
process 2 (+1) 4/6 caluire pae du centre
process 2 - PPP 5/6 dardilly process 1
with limited public funding 6/6 charbonnieres process 2
'light touch'?
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