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Copy of brain gate system

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Kranthi Kumar Pogaku

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of brain gate system

CONTENTS About the Braingate system
Turning thoughts into action
Hardware design
Software used in braingate
References Brain-gate system
It is a NEURAL INTERFACE SYSTEM. BrainGate Neural Interface System is the premiere product of CYBERKINETICS Inc
Cyberkinetics is a biotech company of America which islaid down by Nicholas Halsopulas a neuroscientist in Chicago University.
For severely disabled people, development of a brain-computer interface (BCI) could be the most important technological breakthrough in decades.
Its remarkable goal: to enable quadriplegics to use it just by thinking Turning thoughts into actions Machine that can sense what you think and act on your commands.
Let the disabled communicate and move artificial limbs.
Record electrical activity in the brain and translate into real commands.
Potential to change lives. Scope This system is giving us, for the first time, the ability to look at and listen to patterns of ensembles of individual neurons in the human brain for extended periods of time.
It enables a paralyzed man to move a computer cursor, to open simulated e-mail, draw circular shapes and play simple video games.
It also enabled him to open and close a prosthetic hand and use a robotic limb to grasp and move objects.
Hardware Design Software Used in Braingate Principle The electrodes measure minute differences in the voltage between neurons. The signal is then amplified and filtered.
Similar to older analogue encephalographs. NeuroChip Working Preprocessing:
Raw EEG signal is preprocessed.
Removing unnecessary frequency bands.
Averaging the current brain activity level.
Digital signal processing for sampling.
Band pass filtering the signal.
Calculating and classifying features.
Classification algorithms include simple comparison of amplitudes and artificial neural networks.
Feedback from both partners improves the overall performance
Applying the will of the user.
User’s choice detected and
Classified to corresponding action.
Audio-visual feedback.
User adapts to the BCI system.
Familiarized with mental activity used to relay information.
Motivation, frustration, fatigue, etc. apply here. The product had to be tested
It Worked! Since there were no complications in trials with monkeys Next Step: Humans!
And it Worked, Again! Clinical Trials & Experiments
The first clinical test was conducted on Mathew Nagle on 22.06.2004. He was the first person to use the brain computer interface to restore ctionality lost due to paralysis. He was paralysized from neck down after being stabbed.
Neurosurgeon Gerhard Friehs implanted the Braingate chip in his brain.
After implantation, he was able to control a computer mouse “cursor”. Using it he was able to press buttons that can control T.V, check
e-mails etc.
Second clinical trial was conducted on a 25 years old “QUADRIPLEGIC” Patient. After implantation he was able to switch on lights, adjust T.V volume, change channels and read e-mails using only his brain.
Third experiment was conducted by the University of Pittsburgh on a monkey who has lost a hand in accident. He was implanted with the chip as well as the robotic hand which could able him to feed himself.
Further more experiments are being conducted by the scientists to get far better results. Competitive Advantages The Brain Gate Neural Interface System is being designed to one day allow the user to interface with a computer and/or other devices at a level of speed, accuracy and precision that is comparable to, or even faster than, what is possible with the hands of a non-disabled person.
Its potential to interface with a computer without weeks or months of training;
Its potential to be used in an interactive environment, where the user's ability to operate the device is not affected by their speech, eye movements or ambient noise;
And the ability to provide significantly more usefulness and utility than other approaches by connecting directly to the part of the brain that controls hand movement and gestures.
Challenges The brain is incredibly complex.There are chemical processes involved as well, which EEGs can't pick up on.
The signal is weak and prone to interference. EEGs measure tiny voltage potentials. Reading brain signals is like listening to a bad phone connection. There's lots of static.
The equipment is less than portable.
It is very expensive.
Limitation in information transform rate. The latest technology is 20 bits/min.
Difficulty in adaptation and learning. Conclusion Brain gate technology has proven to be a solution not only for the quadriplegics but it goes far beyond that .
The clinical trials and other experiments has shown good results and boosted the scientists to do lot more in this field.
Research is on to make the physically impaired Braingate user use his own hand and leg in future. www.wired.com

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