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Copy of James Watt & The Invention That Changed The World!

SPH Assignment
by

sam ven

on 25 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of James Watt & The Invention That Changed The World!

What All Did Watt Invent? Watt also developed several other important inventions such as a rotary engine to drive machinery, a double-action engine that admits steam on both sides of the piston and a parallel motion (Watt linkage) that guides the piston rod in a straight line. Why Was Watt's Modification
To The Steam Engine So Important? Watt's modification led an agricultural society into the modern, industrial and technologically advanced one that we live in today. How Did Watt Contribute To The Industrial Revolution? James Watt helped to advance the Industrial Revolution with several contributions. The most notable includes the improvement and advancement of the existing technology of the steam engine. This improvement make the steam engine much more efficient and four times more powerful and 75% more efficient than those based on Thomas Newcomen's design. This cost efficiency and increase in power made their usage more widespread. These changes were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both the Kingdom of Great Britain and the world. James Watt & The Invention
That Changed The World ! By: Samantha Venema Who is James Watt? James Watt was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer and scientific instrument maker whose workings profoundly affected the Industrial Revolution. He changed the way of life and helped revolutionized the world to create a better quality of life. Through several failed attempts and extensive research on steam engines and latent heat, this ingenious inventor developed an efficient steam engine that introduced a separate condenser to avoid energy loss. This is in comparison to contemporary engine designs which lost a great deal of energy due to repeatedly cooling and re-heating the cylinder. This addition greatly increased the efficiency, power and cost-effectiveness of the steam engine. Watt’s invention then became a universal source of power and consequently provided one of the most essential technological components of the Industrial Revolution. Eventually James adapted his engine to produce rotary motion, which converted a machine of limited use, to one of efficiency and many applications. This extended the steam engine's use beyond pumping water to iron-rolling, spinning and weaving mills, and practically any factory use of rotary power. Although James only lived into the early 1800s, his perfection and commercialization of the steam engine heavily affected and the world far after his death. He created new opportunities in transportation, production of goods, land shipping, labor and open water commerce. All of which helped to create a better quality of life and the society we live in today. Watt’s Background History & Inspiration James Watt is the son of James Watt Sr. and Agnes Muirhead. His father was a shipwright, ship owner and contractor, and his mother was a well-educated and distinguished woman. As a child, James Watt was known to be a hands-on type of person who found enjoyment watching his father working in his carpentry shop and experimenting with his mother`s tea kettle. What Key Events Took Place
Throughout James Watt's Lifetime? January 19, 1736: Watt was born in Greenock, Scotland. 1754: James learnt the trade of mathematical-instrument making in London before returning to Glasgow, where he set up a business. Around this point in time, Watt became interested in the technology of steam engines. 1755: Watt trained in London to acquire special skills training on the recommendation and encouragement of Robert Dick. Watt’s application was refused due to the fact that they were only accepting fully-qualified instrument makers. However, John Morgan took the offer on the condition of little pay. 1756: Watt’s initial shop was unsuccessful and shunned by other instrument makers 1757-1763: James’ university prepared a shop for him on campus grounds and created the position "Mathematical Instrument Maker to the University, Glasgow". 1763-1764: Repaired a Newcomen steam engine, which led to his discovery of how he could improve the engine in order to reduce the loss of steam and increase energy efficiency as well as power. This is in addition to his ultimate idea of a design change with the separate condenser.
1763: Watt had a prosperous business with an ever improving reputation. He possessed apprentices of his own however; he still faced financial difficulties and was not out of debt. 1765: Watt discovered external condenser. 1765-1770: Watt erects a range of full-size Newcomen engines in Scotland. 1767: James was appointed surveyor of Forth and Clyde canal. 1774: Due to Roebuck’s bankruptcy, Watt started a business in Soho, near Birmingham, with his new partner, Matthew Boulton, to manufacture and sell his improved Watt steam engine. 1769: Due to Watt’s financial difficulties, he partnered with John roebuck for financial backing on his project and to patent the engine. 1776 The first Boulton and Watt engine became commercially functional and used 75% less fuel than the earlier Newcomen engine. 1781-1782: Watt patented the application of the sun and planet gear to steam, and the double-acting engine. 1784: Watt patented the application of the steam locomotive. 1800: Watt's and Boulton's engine patent runs out. Watt retired to Heathfield Hall near Birmingham at the age of 64 in a healthy, happy and famous state 1813: Steam engine was applied to a boat, hence the term steamboat. This greatly improved methods of transportation during such time. August 19, 1819 James Watt dies at an age of 83. This is in addition to the sun-and-planet gear that drives a rotary shaft from a connecting rod and a steam indicator that measures engine pressure. Watt also used the flyball governor method to automatically regulate engine speed as well as to provide an image of cylinder pressure compared to displacement. In other inventive fields, Watt invented the copying press for hand-written letters, the telescope attachment to measure distance and a cloth drying machine using copper cylinders that were heated by steam. He also made important surveys of several canal routes. How Did The Creation Of The Steam Engine
Change How I Am Living Today? Some also claim that Watt`s idea of the sun and planet gear by use of steam and the steam locomotive had been invented by Murdoch. Matthew Boulton's home, Soho House, is now a museum, commemorating both of the men's work and partnership. What Is The Industrial Revolution & How Has It Developed The World We Live In Today? The Industrial Revolution was a period in which abrupt changes occurred not only in agriculture but in textile and metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and within the British social structure. These changes transformed Britain’s agricultural society into a society based on industrialism. The Industrial Revolution thoroughly destroyed the old manner of doing things (hand power) in order to introduce a technological advance. We are living the lives we are today because of the Industrial Revolution and its worldwide transformations. If the Industrial Revolution had never taken place, the world we live in today could have been completely different. The Industrial Revolution paved a new landscape throughout the world. It is the reason why we have the cities, roads, railways, ports and canals we do today. The everyday materials that are a part of our standard of living are a result of the Industrial Revolution and its developments. These developments have allowed for the mass-production of goods, which supports millions of people around the world. The steam engine was, and still is a vital stepping stone to the advancement in technology the world has today. Without the invention of the steam engine my life would have been significantly different and consist of mainly hand power as our chief source of power. Everything object I use on a daily basis is a result of the steam engine. Steam engines led to the creation of the majority of machinery that are used in factories and on land today. With this machinery, these factories could then produce the objects that are a part of my everyday life. The steam engine operated many other types of machinery which then led to the making of buildings, machines, better inventions and better products. The road we drive on today was a result of power heavy Lorries, road rollers and traction engines, which were all based on the steam engine. The steam engine also led to the creation of different methods of transportation. Steam engines brought upon the creation of steam trains, which resulted in better means of transportation such as airplanes, cars and buses. Vehicles are a necessity to my everyday life and because of the steam engine I’m allowed to travel from one place to another,visit family and friends and go to work. Transportation not only allowed for travel but for import and export of products, trades between countries, local deliveries and transportation of of materials. All of which are major aspects of my life. For instance, importation, exportation and trades are all methods that supply me with a source of food and some of the products that I can buy in Canada today. The steam engine also had applications in agriculture. It was used extensively for deep plowing, cultivating, mole draining and ground clearing. All of these processes contributed to the production of food that is then commercially supplied and consumed by people like you and me. How is James Watt Remembered? James Watt is greatly admired for his contributions to the industrial revolution and many objects were built or named in remembrance of him. For instance, The Edinburgh's Heriot-Watt University was named after James Watt in 1824. The moonstones statues were built in recognition of Watt, Boulton and Murdoch and their efforts by William Bloye. Although Watt did not initially invent the steam engine, he is given the majority of the credit for his addition of the single greatest improvement ever made to the engine. Men such as Giovanni Battista, Jacques Besson, Edward Somerse, Agostino Ramelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Florence Rivault, Salomon de Caus, Giovanni Branca and Edward Ford deserve much credit for their contributions to the idea of the steam engine. Others built on this idea and began finding new applications such as using them for grinding, weaving, milling and mounting them to boats. Soon steam engines were hard at work propelling ships over the Atlantic in 75% to 85% less time than flat bottom boats and speeding express trains across our continent in ninety hours. Both of which dropped shipping costs by 95%, eliminated the dependence on external factors, such as wind and made technology more reliable than horses. In Britain during the 1720’s, the chief source of power was hand power and the majority of the population made their living off the land. Cattle and horses were used to cultivate the fields. Windmills and water wheels were employed to grind corn and wheat. But most tools and machines were worked by hand. The only means of obtaining iron was underground however, the mines were often flooded and horses were too costly and inefficient. This caused many men to dream of a new source of power; steam that would be more useful than animals, sails, windmills, or water wheels. However no one had been able to apply the power of steam to useful things. James Watt succeeded in giving to the world this new source of energy and leased steam engines to mine owners for a third of what it cost them in horse power and later in the cost of coal. Watt has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history as his improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental aspects of the Industrial Revolution and the changes it brought to the rest of the world. James Watt’s modified steam engine multiplied production rates and provided a reliable industrial power source that eliminated the strained and time consuming workload for humans and animals. It caused the usage of the steam engine and industrial development to skyrocket in the 1800s and ultimately eliminate the rural society they were living in at the time. At a very young age, Watt had sparked an interested in scientific instruments, especially ones that dealt with steam. James could always be found tinkering with tools from his father's carpenter bench. This tinkering provided him with the basic knowledge of engineering and tooling as well as the manual dexterity needed in order to take up schooling. When prices fell and agriculture was no longer a steady source of income, many had to find some other way and resorted to making products. This led to a major manufacturing problem as existing metal was too brittle, wood was too soft and iron, for the production of gears and wheels, was difficult to obtain. Fun Fact:

Watt also introduced a unit called horsepower to compare the operating strength of steam engines to how much power would be require by horses. This unit of horsepower is equivalent to 550 foot-pounds per second (about 745.7 watts.) The Industrial Revolution has also brought international wealth. This prosperity supports a larger quantity of people than ever imaginable during the time of an agricultural economy. The Industrial Revolution has opened up new doors for career opportunities. Before the Industrial Revolution, the majority of people had to resort to the land to make a living. However the development of the Industrial Revolution has allowed more and more people to move off the land and into mills, factories, mines and offices. The steam engine allowed a wave of new machines to come into use, which provided a great deal of jobs. These jobs are the basis for the jobs we all have today. Watt came up with this addition in the right place at the right time when people were technologically advanced enough and mentally ready to accept and appreciate his work. If it had been added years before, it would most likely be overlooked as all of the inventors who contributed to the steam engine before him were basically ahead of their time. Do you know
who invented the
steam engine? James Watt ! James Watt only perfected the steam engine. It was invented long before his time. Did James Watt Invent The Steam Engine?
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