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Copy of Lifelines of national economy
Transcript of Copy of Lifelines of national economy
water and air transport. Land transport consists of
roads and railways. Water transport consists of river or inland transport and sea or oceanic transport. The latest and the fastest mode of transport is air transport.
There are five types of transport systems in
India — roadways, railways, pipelines, waterways
Roads : A number of roads were built during the Mughal rule. Sher Shah Suri built the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong (now in Bangladesh) inthe east to Peshawar (now in Pakistan) in the west.
India has a road length of about 2.3million kilometres, one of the largest road networks in the world. Of these 57% are surfaced roads
Significance of Roads :
(i) Roads are cheap and easy, both inconstruction and maintenance.
(ii) They connect fields with markets,
factories with farms and help in providing
door to door service.
(iii) Roads are useful for short distances both
for passengers and goods.
Presented to you by
Mrs. sulthana Hani
Roads and significance
The lifelines of National economy help the national economy to function smoothly and steadily. The chapter is divided into 3 parts:
Parts of the chapter
Types of roads
Roads in India are of
different types — (i) national highways (ii) state
highways (iii) district roads (iv) village roads (v)
Expressways are highways with 4 to 6 lanes
for long-distance, fast-moving traffic between
one part of the country to another.
National Highways : Connect one state with another and are of national importance. There are about 65,000 km of national highways. They constitute 2% of the total road network but carry 40% of total road traffic. They are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
Village Roads connect the villages with the neighbouring towns and cities.
State Highways are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD). They join state capitals with district headquarters and other places of the district.
Border Roads are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation.
The Expressway National Highways
About 14,846 km of national highways were constructed between 1999–2007. These roads with 4 or 6 lanes were named as —
(i) Golden Quadrilateral which connects Delhi,
Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata it has
a length of 5,846 km.
(ii) North-South and East-West
Corridors which connects Srinagar to
Kanniyakumari and Silchar to Porbandar
and it has a length of 7,300 km.
(iii) A road with a length of 1157 km which
connects 10 major ports, namely Kandla,
Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Marmagao,
Tuticorin, Chennai and Ennore,
Visakhapatnam, Paradip and Haldia.
All these national highways are based on the
concept of Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT).
The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as
density of roads. Distribution of road is not uniform in the country. Density of all roads varies from only 10 km in Jammu & Kashmir to 375 km in Kerala with the national average of 75 km (1996-97). Road transportation in India faces a number of problems. Keeping in view the volume of traffic and passengers, the road network is inadequate. About half of the roads are unmettaled and this limits their usage during the rainy season. The National Highways are inadequate too. Moreover, the roadways are highly congested
in cities and most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
Roads can also be classified on the basis of the type of material used for their construction such as metalled and unmetalled roads. Metalled roads may be made of cement,concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore, these are all weather roads.Unmetalled roads go out of use in the rainy season.
Ahmedabad Vadodara Expressway
The railways are now 157 years old in India. The total length of railways is about 63,221 km. India has the second largest railway network in Asia and the sixth largest railway network after USA, Russia, Canada, Germany and China. The Indian Railways carry 40,000 lakh passengers and 4,000 lakh tonnes of goods a year. It had a fleet of 7817
locomotives, 5321 passenger service vehicles, 4904 other coach vehicles and 228,170 wagons as on 31 st March 2004.
Improvement in railways
Metre gauge lines are being converted to broad gauge. Steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines. Other improvements are being made in the area of track replacement, introduction of fast-moving trains and providing public amenities at the railway stations.
Three Gauges of the Railways : Broad gauge (1.675 m), Metre gauge (1.000 m) and Narrow gauge (0.762 m and 0.610 m).
Unigauge System of Railways has larger capacity, higher speed, cheaper transportation and reduction in trans-shipment. At present, 70.72% of rail routes are broad gauge, 23.92% metre gauge and 5.36% narrow gauge.
Pipelines were earlier used for the transportation of water and now they are being used for the transportation of crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas.
Important Network of Pipelines :
(i) From oilfields in upper Assam to Kanpur.
(ii) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in
(iii) Gas pipelines from Hazira in Gujarat to
Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur
in Madhya Pradesh.
Since time immemorial, India was one
of the seafaring countries. Its seamen sailed far and near, thus, carrying and spreading Indian commerce and culture. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly
mode of transport.There are 2 types of water transport:
Inland Waterways have a length of 14,500 km.
The Government has declared the following
waterways as National Waterways :
(i) The Ganga river between Allahabad and
Haldia (1,620 km). — National Waterway
(ii) The Brahmaputra between Sadiya and
Dhubri (891 km). — National Waterway
(a) Kollam and Kottapuram (168 km).
(b) The Champakara Canal (14 km). —
National Waterway. No. 3.
(c) The Udyogamandal Canal (22 km)
With a long coastline of 7,516.6 km, India is
dotted with 12 major and 181 medium and
minor ports. These major ports handle 95 per
cent of India’s foreign trade.
Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port
developed soon after Independence to ease the
volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the
wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after
the Partition. Kandla is a tidal port. It caters to
the convenient handling of exports and imports
of highly productive granary and industrial belt
stretching across the states of Jammu and
Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,
Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Continuation of overseas
Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious
natural and well-sheltered harbour. The
Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view
to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a
• The Ganga river between Allahabad and
Haldia (1620 km)-N.W. No.1
• The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and
Dhubri (891 km)-N.W. No.2
• The West-Coast Canal in Kerala
(Kottapurma-Komman, Udyogamandal and
Champakkara canals-205 km) – N.W. No.3
The other viable inland waterways include
the Godavari, Krishna, Barak, Sunderbans,
Buckingham Canal, Brahmani, East-west
Canal and Damodar Valley Corporation Canal.
hub port for this region.
Continuation of overseas
Marmagao port (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country. This port accounts for about fifty per cent of India’s iron ore export. New Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines. Kochi is the extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.
Moving along the east coast, you would see
the extreme south-eastern port of Tuticorin, in Tamil Nadu. This port has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. Thus, it has a flourishing trade handling of a large variety of cargoes to even our neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc. and the coastal regions of India.
Continuation of overseas
Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports of the country. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms
of the volume of trade and cargo. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. This port was, originally,
conceived as an outlet for iron ore exports. Paradwip port located in Orissa, specialises in the export of iron ore. Kolkata is an inland
riverine port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin.
Being a tidal port, it requires constant dredging of Hoogly. Haldia port was developed as a
subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.
Airways are the fastest mode of transport but
they are the costliest ones. In 1953, air transport was nationalised.
In India, domestic services are provided by
Indian Airlines, Alliance Air, private scheduled
airlines. Air India provides international air services.
Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter
services to Oil and Natural Gas Commission in its
offshore operations. Indian Airlines operations also
extend to neighbouring countries of South East Asia and Middle East
Types fo airways
There are two types of airports in India —
(i) International, and (ii) Domestic
The Airports are managed by the Airport Authority of India.
International Airports : Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Bengaluru, Amritsar, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Panaji, Guwahati and Cochin.
Domestic Airports : There are 63 domestic airports in the country.
The means of communication are divided into two categories — personal and mass communication. Personal communication includes postcards, letters, telegrams, telephones and internet. Mass communication includes handbooks, journals, magazines, newspapers, radio, television and films. They are of two types (i) print media, (ii) electronic media.
Personal Written Communication : Indian
postal network — 1.5 lakh post offices in India.
First-Class Mail : Mail that is air lifted between stations.
Second-Class Mail : Mail that is carried by surface covering land and water transport.
Mass Communication : Radio, television, newspapers including magazines, books and films.
The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. The market is the place where such exchanges take place. Trade between two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes. While local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages, state level trade is carried between two or more states.
Advancement of international trade of a
country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country.
As the resources are space bound, no
country can survive without international
trade. Export and import are the components
of trade. The balance of trade of a country is
the difference between its export and import.
When the value of export exceeds the value of
imports, it is called a favourable balance of
trade. On the contrary, if the value of imports
exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as
unfavourable balance of trade.
India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world. Among the commodities of export,
whose share has been increasing over the last few years till 2004-05 are agriculture and allied products (2.53 per cent), ores and minerals (9.12 per cent), gems and jewellery (26.75 per cent) and chemical and allied products (24.45 per cent), engineering goods( 35.63 per cent)
and petroleum products (86.12 per cent)
The commodities imported to India include
petroleum and petroleum products (41.87 per
cent), pearls and precious stones (29.26 per
cent), inorganic chemicals (29.39 per cent),
coal, coke and briquettes (94.17 per cent),
machinery (12.56 per cent). Bulk imports as a
group registered a growth accounting for 39.09
per cent of total imports. This group includes
fertilizers (67.01 per cent), cereals (25.23 per
cent), edible oils (7.94 per cent) and newsprint
(5.51 per cent). International trade has under
gone a sea change in the last fifteen years.
Exchange of commodities and goods have been
superseded by the exchange of information and
knowledge. India has emerged as a software
giant at the international level and it is earning
large foreign exchange through the export of
Tourism as a trade
national integration and develops an international
understanding. It supports local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.
Foreign tourists arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 23.5% during the year 2004 as against the year 2003, thus contributing Rs 21,828 crore of foreign exchange.
Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir and temple towns of south India are important destinations of foregin tourists in India. There is vast potential of tourism development in the north-eastern states and the interior parts of
Himalayas, but due to strategic reasons these have not been encouraged so far. However,
there lies a bright future ahead for this upcoming industry.