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Functional Properties of Food

Food Technology

Annie Huang

on 24 June 2013

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Transcript of Functional Properties of Food

Functional Properties of Food!!
Crystallisation is a property of sugar related to its ability to dissolve and reform crystals.
Crystallisation is the result of cooling of a supersaturated solution (very concentrated) where solid crystals form. This occurs after substances separate from solutions or where a change from a liquid to a solid causes crystals.

Factors affecting crystallisation:
The formation of crystals is dependent on these
the rate of growth of crystals
the concentration of sugar in the solution
temperature of solution
addition of additives

Role in food application:
Crystallisation occurs in:


Dextrinisation is the process involving the browning of starch foods when subjected to dry heat. It is defined as the breakdown of starch into disaccharides. This technique is a chemical change and does not need enzymes to brown the food products.

Factors affecting dextrinisation:
The degree of dextrinisation is determined by:
the length of time the product is heated
the temperature
the type of starch in the product
action of certain enzymes
amount of exposure to dry heat
action of acids

Role of food application:
Dextrinisaton occurs in:
toasing of bread
baking of goods
browning gravies and sauces
toasted breakfast cereals
formation of baked crusts on vegetables, e.g. potatoes, pumpkin and onions
Foam - the process of whipping or beating air into liquid. Foams are a type of aeration. In aeration, fat in the product becomes partially solidifed and protein becomes denatured. This process requires the use of mechanical use of instruments to create space for oxygen to enter.

Factors that affect aeration:
Factors affecting the rate and effectiveness of foaming include:
the product being beaten
the length of beating time
the severity of the beating
the use of additives
temperature of the product

Role in food application:
Aeration occurs in:
sponages (cakes)

Caramelisation is when sugar is heated above its melting point, it undergoes a physical change to produce caramel. Caramelisation can also be referred to the browning of sugar.
Caramelisation is the chemical reaction in which monosaccharides and disaccharides turn brown with the application of heat.

Factors affecting caramelisation:
Caramelisation varies according to:
the amount of sugar used
the length of heating time
the type of sugar
the temperature the sugar reaches

Role in food applications:
Caramelisation occurs in:
browning of biscuits
cakes and other baked products
commerical milks
ice creams
crème caramel
confectionary products

The process where starch granules (grains) form a suspension in cold water. when heated in the presence of water, these swell and thickens producing a gel consistency. Through this process water is absorbed.

Factors that affect gelatinisation:
ratio of starch to liquid
length of time product is heated
degree of agitation (constant, steady stirring is required for effective gelatinisation)
addition of other ingredients such as acids, sugar

Role in food application:
Gelatinisation occurs in:
lemon meringue filling
cheese sauce
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