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CMS1000 Critical thinking and Intelligence.
Transcript of CMS1000 Critical thinking and Intelligence.
How does it relate to this course?
How does it translate into analysis?
Why do it?
Critical thinking and analysis in CMS1000
Each assessment topic for the essay requires you to look at several key modules and chapters. In doing so,
Examine the content of those readings (What?)
Examine the construction of those reading (How?)
Examine the context of those reading (Why/so what?)
This process is called critical analysis
A little more about this process
What are the main points of this text?
Can you put them in your own words?
What sorts of examples are used? Are they helpful? Can you think of others?
What factors (ideas, people, things) have been included? Can you think of anything that has been missed out?
Is a particular bias or framework apparent? Can you tell what ‘school of thought’ the author belongs to?
Can you work out the steps of the argument being presented? Do all the steps follow logically?
Critical reading at university
Academic material is not meant to be read.
It is meant to be
for essential content.
What to consider when reading critically?
implicit or explicit
The Argument: the claim =
premises + conclusion
Evaluating an Argument: Is the argument sufficiently persuasive?
What we learn
How we learn
What we think is important to learn
What effort we should expend
What we think is
What we think is
How things should be viewed
Whether our learning is of high or low quality
Whether our learning is deep or superficial
Critical thinking and Intelligence.
“ Critical thinking is the ability to engage in reasoned discourse with intellectual standards such as clarity, accuracy, precision, and logic, and to use analytic skills with a fundamental value orientation that emphasizes intellectual humanity, intellectual integrity, and fair- mindedness.”
California State Senate Bill
Developing critical thinking skills
The goal of thinking critically is to guarantee, as far as possible, that one’s beliefs and actions are justifiable and can withstand the test of rational analysis.
This is sometimes easier said than done.
Better way of looking at the issue
Being clear and getting to the point.
That we are trying to approach ideas and issues from as many directions as possible in order to unpack and better understand them.
Active vs. Passive thinking
Not just passive acceptance of information.
Asking questions, evaluating, categorizing.
Finding relationships between ideas and events.
While you're participating in lectures online and in class evaluate the information your are being presented. Think about what questions you have about the connections between information, facts and ideas.
New questions arise and help you think about what helps deepen your understanding.
Being aware of our own biases
Not thinking our intellectual position is the right or the best one to hold… acknowledge you could be wrong and examining the question at hand to determine right and wrong or a better way to look at the issue.
Equating the “Thinking Mind” with the “Rational Mind”
This means to an extent to interrogate ones thinking and how to proceed to handle the questions related to the area of thought.
Critical thinking as a generic skill for life
Some critical thinking activities are listed below:
Critical thinking is the essence of tertiary learning.
As a university student, you will be expected to apply mental actions such as these to all
your academic reading, writing, listening and discussing
Techniques to help you read critically
When you take notes, divide your notepad into two columns. Jot down the main ideas in the left hand column, and supporting comments in the right hand column. Add your own comments in the another colour, or in brackets.
Talk to other people (anyone who is interested!) about what you have read.
Relate this text to others by looking for similar or contrasting themes.
Think about how you might explain what the text means to say, a high school student. What would you have to add to make it intelligible? This will help you to see the underlying, unstated assumptions.)
Ask yourself: ‘Is it possible to disagree with any of this?’
Ask yourself: How can I convince my peers/ teachers that I understand what this is about?’
People who use critical thinking are the ones who say things such as, 'How do you know that? Is this conclusion based on evidence or gut feelings?' and 'Are there alternative possibilities when given new pieces of information?'
Good critical thinkers make good professionals.
In the end, that’s why you are at university.
Distinguish between good and bad reasons that inform our belief or value. Using critical thinking is essential to make sure we have good reasons for our beliefs.
To look at critical reading as a way of thinking.
To interact with the text as a writer.
To find strategies to read critically and write effectively
Preparing to Interact With the Text
Consider the instructor's purpose in assigning the reading or your purpose in choosing the reading.
Read as a writer.
Choose from different reading strategies depending on purpose.
Some Important Questions
What steps do you take to prepare to read?
How do you interact with a text when you read?
How do you generate promising ideas from your readings?
What aspects of your interaction with texts do you want to improve?
Reading as a Writer
Read for comprehension.
Devise systems that allow you to categorize information and ideas.
Take notes, including your thoughts about the material.
Synthesize the information you gather.
Goals of Critical Reading
To identify the author's purpose
–Finding the central idea
–Identifying pertinent supporting details
To understand tone and persuasive elements
To recognize bias
The Argument Three Parts: Claim; Premises; Conclusion
an idea about how the world should be
evidence to support the claim
the claim is defended by the evidence
Therefore an argument occurs when…
is made and
are put forward to justify a
Evaluating the Argument
Three criteria for evaluating arguments
Terms are clearly defined.
Information is used fairly.
The argument is logical.
The man who was made of straw
The Gamblers Fallacy
A precautionary tale
A valid argument
Could a different conclusion be drawn from the argument being presented?
Are the main ideas in the text supported by reliable evidence (well researched, non emotive, logical)?
Do you agree or disagree with the author? Why?
What connections do you see between this and the other texts?
Where does it differ form other texts on the same subject?
What are the wider implications – for you, for the discipline?
Experiment with this approach.
Own it !!!
Incorporate the module quiz questions in the summary box in your notes to help clarify and remember key detail about each module.
the system you use now will be the
one that sets you up for exam success