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Biology EOC Review 4-Ecology

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Clarissa Caro

on 21 April 2013

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Transcript of Biology EOC Review 4-Ecology

Ecology Biology EOC Review 4 Ecological Relationships Ecosystems Matter & Energy in Ecosystems Collection of abiotic (nonlivng) and biotic (living) factors in an area
Together they influence growth, survival, and productivity of an organism Ecosystems Relationship between two organisms in which one benefits
Mutualism (+,+)
Parasitism (+,-)
Commensalism (+, o) Symbiotic Relationships Predator eats prey
Evolve in response to one another Predation Symbiosis is a relationship in which two different organisms have a close association with each other.
Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit.
Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other organism is not affected in any way.
Parasitism is symbolic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed
Predation involves an organism known as a predator that eats part or all of another organism known as its prey.
Competition occurs when two or more individuals or populations compete for the same resource, such as shelter or food Symbiotic Relationships mutualism parasitism competition Maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem can support
Limiting factors:
Food availability
Natural Disasters Carrying Capacity habitat = address (where you live)
niche = job (the role you play) Living (Biotic) factors
all plants & animals living in an area
Physical (Abiotic) factors
soil, rock, temperature, moisture, sunlight Ecosystem Ecosystems change through the process of succession, which is a somewhat regular progression of species replacement.

Succession on a newly formed habitat is primary succession.
Ex. New growth after a glacier moves away from land.

Secondary succession occurs on a habitat that has previously supported growth.
Ex. New growth after a forest fire. Change of Ecosystems Over Time Earth’s land ecosystems (biological communities) Steps in a food chain/web
Energy passes from one organism to another
About 10% of the energy at one level passes to the next Trophic Levels Change in the environment, caused by nature or humans, can affect the stability of an ecosystem in positive or negative ways. Environmental changes can help sustain diverse and abundant populations over a long period of time or they can diminish or destroy populations. Describe how environmental change can impact ecosystem stability Organisms, populations, and communities must respond to external factors like changes in the environment or other organisms.

If an entire species is unable to respond to change, it could face extinction.

Example: A fire destroys all of the grass in a food chain Response to External Factors An increase in environmental toxins at higher tropic levels
Ex. DDT and birds of prey Bioaccumulation n
s decomposers Energy flows through but nutrients cycle
nutrients must be recycled to be available for the next generation
decomposers return nutrients to the soil after creatures die
bacteria But what about nutrients? Food chains are linked together into food webs
Who eats whom?
eating meat?
eating plants?
Many connections throughout ecosystem Food webs Water falls as precipitation and either evaporates from bodies of water, is stored in ground water, or cycles through plants and then evaporates. The Water Cycle Carbon enters the living portion of the carbon cycle through photosynthesis.
Organisms release carbon through cellular respiration.
Carbon trapped in rocks and fossil fuels is released by erosion and burning. The Carbon Cycle "Forget past mistakes. Forget failures. Forget everything except what you're going to do now and do it."
-- William Durant
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