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Copy of EPQ
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What are the potential impacts of decline in bee numbers and how can the decline be managed? The importance of the bee The bee decline By Chelsea Taylor "If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth, man would have no more than four years to live." Pollination Pollinate 70-90% on average of the flora of many low to mid elevation plants in temperate habitats.
Honey bee, USA, 1996-1998, 2009, 130 types of crop $14.5 billion, $15 billion
Africanised honey bee, Arizona, annually $6.3 billion
Honey bee, Canada, 2009 $1.2 billion
All bees, Britain, food crops $270 million
All bees, USA, all pollination $20 billion
All bees, Worldwide, all agricultural produce $3 trillion .
One third of our diet comes from crops which have been pollinated by the honey bee alone!
87 of the 115 major food crops require pollination. Floral relationships The reduction in bees and the plants that they pollinate have been found to be positively correlated.
Attract males of the Euglossini tribe
Substances collected in special leg glands known as apertures and are metabolised and converted into chemical messages or pheromones. These pheromones are used for attracting female bees.
The orchid glues pollinia onto the bee to complete cross pollination.
Buzz” pollination - the flowers need to be vibrated to release the pollen from the apical pores. Animal relationships 2 year trial:
17 bee hives were set 10cm apart connected by wires.
The farmer sells the honey.
Elephants kept out of the farms 93% of the time.
Similar trials are now being set up in Tanzania and Uganda.
The Kattunayakan tribe live in Southern India in the forests of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve who collect and sell honey.
“Bees are part of our life… a bee is not just another insect like a fly or mosquito. It is special; all life depends on it…”. Statistics 25% of bee species decreased in numbers in Belgium.
Bee diversity fell by 80% in just 25 years in the Nethelrands.
The numbers of Bombus sensu strictu, Bombus affinis, Bombus terricola, Bombus occidentialis are declining dramatically, especially in North America where Bombus franklini is close to extinction.
From the 1970’s to the 2000’s the once common Bombus affinis has now disappeared from as many as 42 out of 43 sites.
Nosema bombi Mites and Parasites The transportation also affects the bees due to the change in temperature leading to hypothermia or heat shock.
Varroa destructor / varroa mite / “Vampire mite” feed on the hemolymph of bee larvae.
They have the potential to wipe out an entire colony in just one day!
IAPD, Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus can cause paralytic seizures in bees.
Kleptoparasites feed on the bee’s larval food .
Female bees have a large acarinarium at the front of the abdomen which could be carrying large gamasid mites of the genus Dinogamasus usually about 2-3mm long.
Using their adapted chelicerae, they scratch off the bee larva cuticle whilst detaching microorganisms Pesticides Apis mellifera have lower detoxification genes so are more susceptible.
Wild bees are exposed to these harsh chemicals less as they rarely forage in arable land.
Neonicotinoids release deadly neurotoxins.
These pesticides were banned in France after a significant increase in the death of honeybees. Soon after, the numbers increased again so Germany, Italy and Slovenia banned these pesticides too.
The neonicotinoids affect the nervous system making the bees disorientated and soon leads to death. CCD The colony collapse disorder
Main cause for the bee decline in the USA in the past 50 years.
Dave Hackenberg had 400 hives. A month later found only 32 stable hives and the others were empty.
The cause is still unknown.
A syndrome due to the sudden disappearance of all of the adult honey bees from a colony in a hive.
It was only noticed in 2006.
The industry saw losses of more than 30% in 2007-2008.
CCD was widespread in the USA by the spring of 2007 where 25% of all US beekeepers suffered losses.
The ARS, Agricultural Research Service, has published findings of a link between higher numbers of pathogens present on bees and CCD, but no link with a certain parasite and no link between pesticide levels. Competition Competition for food, water, mates and shelter between animals.
The cuckoo bees
Lost their nesting instincts
Don't collect pollen Conservation Statistics Bumblebees: 13 of the 19 native species were failing to thrive in 1997 and later in 1999, of these 19 species, only 16 remained where 3 were close to extinction, 6 were threatened and one became extinct.
In Hawaii, there is now only half of the original Hylauses species which are either extinct or in danger of extinction.
20,000 species of bee to date.
37-65% of bee species are on lists of conservation concern in Europe.
Only two species of bee are registered on the Global IUCN Red list.
Not a single one is present on the US Endangered Species Act.
According to IUCN criteria, 11% of the 60 Bombus species are near threatened or are in a more serious category and 30% are threatened, but only one is present on the IUCN list.
Half of the Bombus species is predicted to be extinct or close to extinction and 7% have become extinct from 1951 to 2000. Strategy 1: In 1993 the Convention on Biological Diversity was signed by 168 countries.
Pollinators are now a major target for the EU’s “ALARM” programme which is continuing to collect data in several countries on:
Competition from honeybees
The decline in hedgerows. Strategy 2: The São Paulo meetings were in Brazil in 1998.
Documenting pollinator decline
The causes of these declines
Conservation and restoration of these pollinators (particularly the bees)
Increasing awareness of pollinator services
More research on non-honey bee pollinators as honey bees can be associated with monoculture in agriculture This overdependence on a single organism can have fatal outcomes if natural factors get out of balance. Strategy 3: The Carl Hayden bee research centre in the USDA-ARS (United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service) has ARS research organised into national programmes and each contain research projects.
Improving nutrition for honey bee colonies to stimulate population growth and reduce the impact of Varroa mites
Improving bee health
Constructing a pollination model and examine microbes in healthy honey bee colonies.
This research centre aims to look into 4 key areas:
Honey bee diet
Africanised honey bees
They hope to:
Produce a liquid protein for colonies to improve health
Generate a dry semi-solid diet to provide beekeepers with an alternative routine for feeding
Analyse what the stimulant is in the pollen for bee feeding My EPQ The title The research and what I would do differently The presentation What I've learned I hope you've enjoyed learning about bees, are there any questions? What would happen if the honeybee were to die out?
If the bee were to become extinct tomorrow, how would the world change?
Bees: their uses, why they’re declining, conservation and coping without the bee
Evaluate the Einstein quote "If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth, man would have no more than four years to live."
Where have you bee-n?
Evaluate the significance of the bee decline and bee conservation
What are the potential impacts of decline in bee numbers and how can the decline be managed? Used lots of sources like books, newspapers, magazines, websites, journals etc.
Wrote review on each of sources used including reliability (eg date) and relevance
Start and complete research earlier
Keep on track with log book
Record the reference of the resources as you use them. Start early
Include the best bits from your research
Invite as many people as you can including teachers
Watch other's presentations for ideas
Prezi or powerpoint Independent study
Confidence in presenting what I've found
How to use resources and where to find them
How to narrow my search
Referencing and bibliographies
How to presentation to an audience Apis mellifera, the most
common honey bee Nosema ceranae A cuckoo bee invading the nest of a mining bee