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Historical Timeline for ELL
Transcript of Historical Timeline for ELL
Historical Timeline for Second Language Learners
1840s – When state systems of public education were established, some schools were bilingual.
1884 - Tape v. Hurley - Chinese American children given the right to public education on the basis of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the laws of the state of California. However from the 1880s to the 1940s, Asian Americans were educated in segregated public schools by laws and practices.
1914-1919 - During World War I there was a push for monolingualism and the teaching of German was eliminated from public schools.
1923 - In reaction to the large number of non-English speaking immigrants, by 1923, thirty-four states had passed laws requiring that English be the language of instruction in public schools.
1946 – Mendez v. Westminster Board of Education - In this ruling, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional.
1958 - The National Defense Act encouraged the study of foreign languages in school.
1959 - After the Cuban Revolution, thousands of Cuban families fled to the United States as political exiles. Public schools, especially those in South Florida, were overwhelmed with the enrollment of Spanish-speaking children. President Eisenhower authorized the immediate transfer of one million dollars to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for assistance to South Florida.
1967 - The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) was amended to create the Bilingual Education Act (Title VII). The Bilingual Education Act provided discretionary, supplemental funding (federal aid) for school districts that established programs to meet the “special educational needs” of children with limited English speaking ability.
1970 - May 25, 1970 Memorandum states: “Where inability to speak and understand the English language excludes national origin minority group children from effective participation in educational programs offered by a school district, the district must take affirmative steps to rectify the language deficiency in order to open its instructional programs to these students.”
1973 - In Keys v. School District Number One, Denver Colorado, the U.S. Supreme court recognized Mexican Americans as having the constitutional right to be recognized as an identifiable minority.
1981 - Castaneda v. Pickard required that “appropriate action to overcome language barriers” be taken and that the programs be well documented. It also set the standards for courts in examining programs for LEP students: sound pedagogically theory, implemented effectively with adequate resources and personnel, and after a trial period, evaluation of effectiveness in overcoming language handicaps.
1994 - President Clinton signed an executive order: "Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans."
1999 – 43 states and the district of Columbia had laws providing for bilingual education & English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction.
2001 – No Child Left Behind Act - Bilingual education was folded into NCLB and references to “bilingual education” were changed to “language instruction education program.” Bilingual Education was turned into a state-administered formula-grant program. NCLB required states and districts “to help ensure that children who are limited English proficient, …attain English proficiency, develop high levels of academic attainment in English, and meet the same challenging State academic standards as all children are expected to meet.”
Samuel Orville Grubbs was born and completely ignorant to the English language.
My family and I move to Texas and learned the official English language with words including: Ya'll, fixin', and posta.
The year I quit school! (I had not mastered formal English making it difficult to find decent work)
My experience at TDS Fort Worth, Texas; I tried to learn spanish.