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'Ch.25 Adverbials', The Grammar Book
Transcript of 'Ch.25 Adverbials', The Grammar Book
Shin, Ah-reum Introduction sentence-final and sentence-initial adverbials
preverbal adverbs of frequency (PAFs) Form, meaning, and use of sentence-final adverbials Form of sentence-final adverbials Use of sentence-final adverbials When more than one sentence-final adverbial occurs, by. Miller examined a database of 50,000 words (half spoken and half written) - prepositional phrases : 75% - averbial phrases,
and nonfinite adverbials : 25% - prepositional phrase : in all positions - adverbial phrases : first in a string of multiple adverbials - adverbial clauses : last positions "Shorter consituents tend to come before longer constituents in a string of multiple adverbials!" more in written
than spoken English discourse! Form, meaning, and use of
sentence-initial adverbials Form of sentence-initial adverbivals occur more frequently! why? not only a single phrasal adverb,
but also a prepositional phrase(of course)
& an adverbial cluase Meaning of sentence-initial adverbials by. Haliday "Four functional Categories" refer to a different facet of speaker attitude except for 'of course',
these lexical adverbs are all generated as adverbial phrases consisting of a single adverb. Use of sentence-initial adverbs by. Lee; - examined over 300,000 words each of written & spoken data
- found 736 tokens of sentence-initial adverbs rare! maybe Vs. perhaps 1) occur twice
as often in speech as in writing 1) the more formal than maybe 2) weaker in terms of probability than perhaps
; co-occured with overt negatives more frequently 2) tend to collocate with positive superlatives sometimes 1) occur most often
with first and second person NP subjects 2) the discourse functions; of course vs. obviously : the speaker/writer's persperctive
that he or she projects 'strong certainty' to the interlocutor! : of Lee's 125 tokens,
- spoken : 93
- written : 32 of course obviously : of Lee's 37 tokens (much fewer)
- spoken : 20
- written : 32 1) have a persuasive rhetorical function while presuming the listener shares the opinion expressed by the speaker 1) tends to reinforce a more 'negative' or 'self-effacing' perspective 2) marks a point of departure from the argument in the prior discourse and simultanesouly provides another perspective that contrasts with the prior discourse often a version of the first argument is once again subsequently reasserted following 'but' 2) does NOT presume that the listner agrees with speaker,
and thus requires 'less' context than of course fortunately vs. unfortunately occur almost twice
as frequently in the 'written' corpus as in the spoken one fortunately unfortunately 1) occur almost twice
as frequently as fortunately 2) tends to co-occur with other grammatical and lexical items indicative of a 'negative' or 'problematic' situation 1) main function
: problem-solving scope
(speaker's conviction that the reality of things is more positive than prior information) Additional comments
on initial & final adverbial clauses Reduced forms of adverbial clauses ; some adverbial clauses of time, both initial and final,
may appear in 'subordinate clauses' in which the subject and
sometimes also the auxiliary verb seem to have been 'deleted'. Punctuation with adverbial clauses ; a sentence-initial adverbial clasus is normally followed by a 'comma', ; In contrast, a sentence-final adverbial clauses normally is NOT preceded by a comma. HOWEVER!
; if it is viewed as an 'afterthought', it is set of with a comma, too! Use of initial & final adverbial-clauses in conversation by. Ford 'the types of adverbial clauses' +) Conversation is very different from writing
- why? adverbial clause can have its own separate intonation contour (Ch.27) sentence-initial adverbial clauses 1) 'pivotal' points in the development of talk
: presents explicit background, and tie back to previous discourse "shift"
(specific to nonspecifir time) sentence-final adverbial clauses 1) do NOT create discourse links or shifts This completes the meaning of the preceding main clauses! 2) have different functions
with their own separate intonation contour - by the same speaker (to 'self-edit') - by another speaker (to 'negotiate' understanding)