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KHOO KONGSI TEMPLE

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saasain asai

on 17 December 2014

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Transcript of KHOO KONGSI TEMPLE

KHOO KONGSI TEMPLE PENANG
INTRODUCTION
THE ARCHITECTURAL CONFIGURATION
CONSISTS OF :
THE CLANHOUSE LEONG SAN TONG
ADMINISTRATION BUILDING WITH MEETING HALL AND OFFICES
OPERA STAGE
62 UNITS OF TERRACE HOUSES
SHOPHOUSES
THREE ENTRANCE :
MAIN AT CONNAN STREET
REAR ENTRANCE WITH DECORATIVE ARCHWAY, FACES BEACH STREET
SIDE LEADS TO ARMENIAN STREET
THE ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT
IN THE MIDDLE OF THE COURTYARD & FACES WEST-NORTHWEST
HAS WIDTH OF 7 BAYS WITH PROTRUDING FAÇADE
CONSISTS :
PRAYER PAVILLION (ALMOST HALF A STOREY)
DOUBLE-STOREY MAIN BUILDING
SINGLE-STOREY KITCHEN (ON SIDE WING - LEFT)

HISTORY
a clan association of the Leong San Tong (Dragon Mountain Hall) clan Sin Kang clan village
Hokkien
among the wealthy Straits Chinese traders of 17th centuryMalacca and early Penang.
built in 1906 when the Khoo clan was at the height of wealth and eminence in Penang society
The forefathers of the Khoo family who emigrated from South China built it as a clanhouse for members of the Khoo family in 1851

was burnt down (1894), struck by lightning, and the Chinese believed that was due to its resemblance to the Emperor's palace, which provoked the gods
rebuilt (1902) , completed (1906)
dedicated to the clan's patron deities and also houses a collection of ancestral tablets. Chinese operas are still staged at the theatre
George Town, Cannon Square, 10450 Pulau Pinang
ORIGIN OF THE KHOO
CLAN IN SIN KANG
Progenitor Chan Yan Si of Tang Dynasty, the distant ancestor of the Sin Kang Khoo Clan
A drawing from The Genealogy of the Sin Kang Khoo and Chan Clans which shows the location of the tomb of the Progenitor Chian Eng Kong and Saw See Cheng. The tomb faces west-northwest
Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi and subclans
Boon San Tong Khoo Kongsi and Khoo Si Toon Keng Tong Khoo Kongsi, do not represent every Chinese with the surname of Khoo
is from Sin Kang Seah, Sin Aun Village, Sam Toh District, Hai Teng County, Chiang Chew Prefecture, Hokkien Province, China are accepted as clansmen
Sin Kang Seah is presently Sin Aun Village in Xing Lin District, Xing Lin Town, Amoy (Xiamen), which is under the administration of the Hai Cheng Department of Amoy City Council.
8 km west of the island of Amoy, is situated at the estuary of Sin Kang River, a downstream branch of Kew Leong River.
typical clan village of a single surname in costal Southern Fujian.
total population of 7000, 78 percent have the surname Khoo
The Khoos of Sin Aun Village and Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi, same progenitor, Khoo Chian Eng.
Sin Kang Khoo and Chan Clans, Khoo Chian Eng was the son of a Chan family.
descendant of Chan Yan Si of Oon Leong during the Tang Dynasty,
the 14th generation descendant of Chan Leong Kong who was an advisor of the emperor during the Song Dynasty,
SIN KANG (SIN AUN)
Sin Kang Village
rebuilt and completed in 1997
The first Sin Kang emigrant was Khoo Se Phai, an 8th generation descendant of the Khoo Clan, who travelled to Borneo and died there on the 20th day of the 6th Moon in the 6th year of the Jia Jing reign
EMIGRATION
Khoo Mo Liang, was probably one of the earliest Chinese in Penang. His second son, Khoo Thean Choo, was born, bred, married, had children and was burried on the island
A map showing the emigration of the Khoo Clan from Sin Kang village
THE CLAN STRUCTURE
Khoo Si Toon Keng Tong Kongsi
The Genealogy of Sin Kang Khoo and Chan Clans
The Establishment of
Leong San Tong
The 1851 bamboo couplets in the Cheng Soon Keong, which survived the fire of 1901, are now hanging in the Hock Teik Soo
The plaque of Leong San Tong
VIEW OF KHOO KONGSI
THE ARCH AT BEACH STREET
CANNON SQUARE
COLONIAL HYBRID :
STYLE OF TEMPLE IN SOUTHERN FUJIAN
EARLY LOCAL BUNGALOW WITH A FRONT PORCH
BUNGALOW
ANGLO-MALAY BUNGALOW
CONSTRUCTION BASED ON MALAY STILT HOUSES
SYMMETRICAL STRUCTURE
SEMI-OPEN STAIRCASE LEADS TO THE VERANDAH

PURCHASED THIS PREMISE IN 1850
CONVERTED TO CLANHOUSE (1851)
STRUCTURE INDO-MALAY BUNGALOW (1891 – 1893)

CLANHOUSE OF BOON SAN TONG KHOO KONGSI (1878)
BLENDED-CHINESE-CULTURE CLANHOUSE CANOOT BE FOUND IN CHINA
INTEGRATION
the cross sectional perspective view
THE SPATIAL ORDER AND ROOF PATTERNS
STONE OF THE ROYAL WAY
excellent craftsmanship in woodcarving, stone carving, coloured drawing, stucco sculpture, cut-and-paste decoration and tiled roof work of master craftsmen from Southern Fujian at the end of the Qing Dynasty
THE WING-SHAPED RIDGES OF THE PRAYER PAVILION
The main truss of the Prayer Pavilion
SPACIOUS TERACCE 1.2 METERS ABOVE THE GROUND
4 STAIRCASE
6 OCTAGONAL GRANITE PILARS - SUPPORT BEAM AND ROOF
MAIN RIDGE - 3 SECTIONS ( TIPS OF EACH SECTION TURN-UP SWALLOW- TAILED DECORATIONS
GRAND STAIRCASE CONNECT THE PRAYER PAVILION AND MAIN HALL
three cross-beams, five queen-posts.
bracket bases are not melon-shaped
animal motifs.
The wood carvings are gilded and painted
Prayer pavilion with a grand staircase is unusual in traditional Fujian architecture
THE MAIN BUILDING
2 LEVEL MAIN BUILDING - 15M
HAS YING SHAN ROOF WHICH IS A GABLE ROOF WITH SOLID WALLS AT BOTH ENDS
UPPER FLOOR OF CENTRAL HALL IS THE

CHENG SOON KEONG
LEFT - HOCK TEIK SOO
RIGHT - EE KOK TONG
LOWER FLOOR AT CENTRAL HALL USED WEDDING TEA RECEPTIONS
THE ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURE
90% IS TYPICAL OF THE SOUTHERN FUJIAN STYLE
MAIN HALL ROOFTOP AND PRAYER PAILION USE CURVED SURFACES AND WING-SHAPED RIDGES WITH CUT-AND-PASTE DECORATION AND STUCCO SCULPTURE
ROOF TRUSS - 3 CROSS-BEAMS, 5 QUEEN-POSTS WOODEN STRUCTURE
BRICK AND ROOF - GABLE WALLS
ROOFTOP - RED COLOUR
WALL AT VERANDAH - GREEN AND WHITE STONE WITH DECORATION
Western-style wrought iron fencing of floral motifs
The trapezium ceiling in the Hock Teik Soo and the Ee Kok Tong halls is actually not typical of the Southern Fujian architecture
One of the “Sinolised” stone carvings at the front verandah, which features foreigners lifting their hands to support a roof eave
THE STONE CARVING AND STRUCTURE
USED SUPERIOR QUALITY STONE MATERIALS
PRAYER PAVILION TO VERANDAH
GREEN, WHITE AND PINKISH STONES
STONE MATERIAL IMPORTED FROM AMOY, FUJIAN PROVINCE
3 CONTRACTOR
NAME OF THE MANSORIES
A pair of giant green stone lions guarding the courtyard of Leong San Tong
GREEN STONE INCENSE BURNER
USUALLY FOUND IN THE PALACE PROTRUDES RIGHT FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE ELEVATED TERRACE.
ROUND SHAPE – SYMBOLIZE FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF GOOD FORTUNE ( wu fu lin men)

STONE OF THE ROYAL WAY

THE GREEN STONE TURBANED WATCHMEN HOLDING A GUN AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE PRAYER PAVILION
STONE PANELS OF THE GRAND STAIRCASE HAVE BASS-RELIEF OF PLANTS MOTIFS
ENDS OF THE HANDRAILS
INTERPLAY OF JOY AND SORROW OF HUMAN EXISTENCE
STONE CHILD WITH A GOLDEN INGOT SYMBOLISING THE COMING OF GOOD FORTUNE ( jin bao )
STONE CHILD WITH HOLDS A PLAM-LEAF FAN AND A COIN SYMBOLISING WEALTH ( zhao cai )
FEATURES THE MOTIF OF LONGEVITY AND PROSPERITY - (LEFT)
TELLS THE STORIES OF REWARD FOR FILIAL PIETY – (RIGHT)
PAIR OF GREEN STONE LIONS
CENTRAL HALL HAS STONE LIONS
TWO SIDE HALLS HAVE STONE DRUMS
SERVE AS A DIRECTIONAL GUIDE, LEADING THE VISITORS INTO THE HALLS
ACCENTUATE ITS STATUS AS THE CENTRAL HALL
REPRESENT THE RESPECTFUL RECEPTION OF ITS HONOURABLE GUESTS
THE STONE DRUMS IN FRONT OF THE SIDE HALLS HAVE A HELIX DECORATION ON THE FLANKS, FIGURES AND AUSPICIOUS PATTERNS AT THE BASES
CASTLE OF THE GUAN FAMILY
Observation Pavilion
bamboo symbolizes the virtue of humanity
“Kung Ming defeating Jiang Wei,” an episode in “Romance of The Three Kingdoms”
Praying For. – A general and a child hold a flag (qi) and a ball (qiu) respectively. This pictorial presentation is a pun on the phrase praying for (qi qiu)
Auspices and blessings. – The figures hold a halberd (ji) and a chime (qing) respectively. This pictorial presentation syombolizes auspicies (ji) and blessings (qing)
The Kylin sculptures on the walls adjoining the portal represent benevolent animals
The relief sculpture with three goats meaning three goats for auspicious beginning, commonly used at the beginning of the yea
A stone carving at the top panel of front wall features the story of Lady White Snake saving her husband
The stone carvings feature the two affections, namely the affection of Lotus by Wang Xi Zhi, and the affection of Plum Blossom by Meng Hao Ran
Eastern dragon. On the left, the engraving features two dragons in the cloud and sea
Western tiger. On the right, the exquisite folklyric engraving features two tigers, one big and one small, roaming in the woods
Safety – The vase (ping) represents safety (ping an), while the peony stands for wealth. Together they represent wealth and safety (fu gui ping an)
The first panel depicts 6 of the 24 stories of filial piety
The second panel depicts 6 of the 24 stories of filial piety
The third panel depicts 6 of the 24 stories of filial piety
The fourth panel depicts 6 of the 24 stories of filial piety
The rich, multi-layered scenes on the roof and the swallow-tailed ridge of Leong San Tong. Note that underneath the ridge stands a turbaned watchman waving his hand and looking at something
The Stucco Sculpture
A stucco sculpture is usually moulded in the shape of plants, animals or figures and then finished in colour. If the size is huge, an internal iron framework will be necessary
The “Li Shi” made of stucco is supporting the pai tou
The Jiao Zhi Pottery
The Jiao Zhi pottery is pottery that is glazed and burnt in a low-temperature klin. Its colour is distinctive but not striking.
The Ceramic Figurines
A ceramic figurine is glazed and burnt in a high-temperature klin.
THE MURALS AND COLOURED DRAWINGS IN LEONG SANG TONG
- The coloured drawings are found on the walls (the murals and the painted wall panels) and the wooden structures

- The large murals can be found in the Cheng Soon Keong ( Central Hall ) and the rear corridor
The calligraphy made up of birds or flowers and the signature of Yeoh Boon Ngah
The Murals in the Cheng Soon Keong
There are four murals in the Cheng Soon Keong.

The mural is about chinese wedding

18 of the 36 Celestial Guardians on the right wall of the Cheng Soon Keong
18 of the 36 Celestial Guardians on the left wall of the Cheng Soon Keong
The Murals at the Rear Corridor

There are five murals at the rear corridor, three of them large and two of them small. They have survived the test of time for almost a century.. Their perfect condition makes them some of the most important heritage paintings of this country.
The Nine Old Men

The story originated in the Tang Dynasty. During the summer of the fifth year of the reign of the Emperor Wu Zong, the famous poet Bai Ju Yi and eight other old men gathered in Luo Yang. They wrote and recited poems and had the event recorded in a painting called the “Nine Old Men”. The painting advocated optimism as a means for good health and longevity.
The Hundred Sons and Thousand Grandsons

This painting epitomises the common wish of Chinese society for a big family with plenty of offspring. For a house filled with offspring is considered a blessing. It is also the wish of the Khoo clan to procreate and flourish on this land, as the number of offspring illustrates the power of the clan
The Fisherman, Woodsman, Farmer and Scholar


The representation reflects the values revered in a traditional agricultural society, in which people are encouraged to work hard to be self-sufficient on the one hand, and to cultivate good morality and try for an official career through studying on the other.
The Door Gods at the Verandah

The Door Gods or Men Shen painted on the door act as a talisman guarding against evil spirits and welcoming good fortunes.

Three pairs of Door Gods are painted respectively on the doors of the three halls of Leong San Tong. The pair at the central hall are called Shen Tu and Yu Lei; the pair at the right hall are those of two heavenly generals; while the pair at the left hall are those of two heavenly officials representing wealth and dignity.
COURTYARD
INSPRIRATION FROM CHENG SOON KEONG
PRAYER PAVILION
ENTRANCE
CONCLUSION
THE TIMBER WORK
Bracket base in the shape of a lion, which represents patronage, is auspicious and a protection from evil
Bracket base in the shape of a toad. The three-legged toad absorbs the energy of nature and breathes out the air of auspices
Bracket base in the shape of an elephant, symbolizes auspices and blessings
Bracket base in the shape of a deer which is a symbol of wealth
Bracket base in the shape of a kylin, which is an auspicious anima
Bracket base in the shape of an eagle and a bear, represent “The meeting of Heroes”
The Dou Gong
The Diao Tong (The Hanging Short Column)
HAS FUNCTION OF LOAD-BEARING FOR THE EAVE
The Sui
AS IT IS WIDE BUT NOTHE PRIMARY LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE, IT IS CARVED OUT AND VWNTILATED
The Tuo Mu (The Joint Bracket)
The Tuo mu or the joint bracket is a stabilising triangular structure between the beam and the column.
The Cantilevered Base and Bracket
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