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US History - 12.1 - 12.2 - 12.3 - Reconstruction and Its Effects

USH 12.1 through 12.3
by

McDaris

on 2 May 2014

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Transcript of US History - 12.1 - 12.2 - 12.3 - Reconstruction and Its Effects

America has been split apart by three major wars; in the 1770's, the American Revolution; in the 1970's, the Vietnam War; between these two wars, the Civil War. Each war dramatically changed the generation that engaged in the battles as well as the generations that followed. This lecture will examine the repercussions of the Civil War, its effects on the American people, and the agreements and disagreements within the nation over the meaning of the word "Reconstruction."
On April 14, 1865, as President Lincoln watched a performance of "American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington D.C., he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor from Maryland obsessed with avenging the Confederate defeat.
April 9, 1865, Robert E. Lee Surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox
Conditions in the Postwar South
Physical and Economic Conditions
By 1870, all Confederate states in Union with Republican governments
Buildings, infrastructure, farms destroyed throughout South
People poor; property value plummets, Confederate bonds worthless
1/5 white males dead, many maimed; tens of thousands black males dead
Public Works Programs
Transportation; homes for orphans, disabled; public schools built
Northern capitalists do not invest in South; states must raise taxes
Ulysses S. Grant
Robert E. Lee
Appomattox Court House
Chapter 2 Names and Terms
Politics in the Postwar South
African Americans as Voters
African Americans are largest group of Southern Republicans
In many areas, 90% of African-American voters vote
Political Differences
Few scalawags support civil rights for blacks; many rejoin Democrats

Republican governors appoint Democrats; do not win white support

Some whites support Republicans; think end of slavery good for South

Many whites refuse to accept new status or equal rights for blacks

Several thousand Southerners emigrate to Europe, Mexico, Brazil

Former Slaves Face Many Challenges
New-Won Freedoms
At first, former slaves cautious about testing limits of freedom
Some travel to new places
Many leave plantations to find work in Southern towns
Former Slaves Face Many Challenges
Churches and Volunteer Groups
Many African Americans found churches; mostly Baptist, Methodist
Black ministers become influential community leaders
African Americans form thousands of volunteer organizations:
- foster independence
- give financial, emotional support
- offer leadership opportunities
Politics and African Americans
1865–1877, African Americans hold local, state, federal office
At first, most officeholders freeborn; by 1867 some former slaves
Almost as many black as white citizens; black officeholders minority
- only 16 African Americans in Congress
- Hiram Revels is first black senator
Laws Against Segregation
By 1866, Republican governments repeal most black codes
Anti-segregation laws created, but many not enforced
Blacks focus on building up their community, not total integration
Restoration of Plantations
African Americans, poor whites want small farms
Planters, Northern merchants, mill owners want cotton plantations
Planters fear will be unable to make profit if must pay wages
Freedmen work in mills, railroad, farming
- planters prevent them getting land
Sharecropping and Tenant Farming Interactive
Landless African Americans sign labor contracts with planters
- neither freedmen nor planters happy with system

Sharecropping—owner gives land, seed, tools for part of crops

Tenant farming—rent land from owner; buy own tools
Who were the Radical Republicians?
Cotton No Longer King
Other countries increase cotton production; South creates oversupply

Try to diversify—textiles, tobacco products; wages lower than North

Banks hold Confederate debt, mounting planters’ debts; many fail
Andrew Johnson
Reconstruction
Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens
Wade-Davis Bill
Freedmen's Bureau
black codes
Fourtheenth Amendment
Fifthteenth Amendment
Scalawag
carpetbagger
Hiram Revels
sharecropping
tenant farming
Ku Klux Klan
Panic of 1873
redemption
Rutherford B. Hayes
Samuel J. Tilden
home rule


Southern opposition to Radical Reconstruction, along with economic problems in the North, end Reconstruction.
Anti-Black Violence
1868–1871 Klan, others kill thousands, burn schools, churches, homes
Klan works to force Republican state governments out of power
Southern Democrats use violence to intimidate black voters
White Democratic candidates win state elections in 1875, 1876
Fraud and Bribery
Grant considered honest; appoints friends to political office
Beginning in 1872, series of Grant administration scandals exposed
Administration corruption continues; Grant does not seek reelection

Diverted public attention in the North from what was happening in the South

Economic Pressure
Black landowners, non-farmers attacked, have property destroyed
Need forces freedmen into wage labor and sharecropping for whites
Legislative Response
1870, 1871 Enforcement Acts passed to curtail Klan, Democrats
Supreme Court rules 1871 act unconstitutional
Klan violence decreases because restore white supremacy in South

Economic Turmoil
Currency Dispute
Panic of 1873 fuels dispute over currency
financial experts want return to gold standard
South, West want more greenbacks to pay debts
1875, Specie Resumption Act puts country back on gold standard
Also weakened support for Radical Republicans
Supreme Court Decisions
1870s Supreme Court decisions undermine 14th, 15th Amendments
Federal government loses power to protect African-American rights
Democrats "Redeem" the South
Home Rule in the South
After Hayes removes federal troops, Democrats take over states
Home rule—running state government without federal intervention

Southerners were determined not to accept any change in the social or economic status of the freed slaves
The "Lost Cause"
Meant the restoration of the virtues, the economy, and, particularly, the social system of the Old South.
"Can the United States, should the United States, truly be united?
Can black and white, should black and white, live together in equality and harmony?"
Conclusion:
The keynote of Southerners and their response to Northern activity
the theme of restoration
the theme of redeeming the "Lost Cause."
There gradually evolved a kind of different South by the end of the nineteenth century
a "New South"
Section 2
Reconstructing Society

Various groups contribute to the rebuilding of Southern society after the war.
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
• Democrats call Southern white Republicans scalawags
- most are small farmers
- want better economic position
• Carpetbaggers—Northerners who moved to South after war

Reunification of Families
Many search for loved ones on different plantations

Couples can marry legally and be sure of keeping their children

Education
Freed people of all ages seek education
African Americans establish schools and universities
Initially, most teachers Northern whites; by 1869, most are black

Changes in the Southern Economy
Section 3
The Collapse
of Reconstruction
Opposition to Reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
• Ku Klux Klan (KKK)—Confederate veterans group that turns terrorist
• Grows rapidly; aims to restore white supremacy

Shifts in Political Power
1872 Amnesty Act returns voting rights to many former Confederates
Congress allows Freedmen’s Bureau to expire
Scandals and Money Crises Hurt Republicans
Republican Unity Shattered
1872, Liberal Republican Party forms, nominates Horace Greeley
Democrats also nominate Greeley; Grant wins by wide margin
Liberal Republicans weaken Radicals, make Reconstruction difficult
Northern Support Fades
Northerners grow indifferent to events in South:
- shift attention to national problems
- want reconciliation between regions
- begin to dislike Reconstruction policies
Republicans give up from lack of judicial, public support, leaders
Republicans conclude government cannot impose moral, social changes

Democrats Recapture the South
Redemption—return of Democrats to power in the South, 1869–1875

Election of 1876
Republicans nominate Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, not Grant

Democrats choose Governor Samuel J. Tilden

Tilden wins popular vote, 1 shy of electoral; 20 electoral disputed

Compromise of 1877—Hayes gets presidency, Democrats get:
- federal troops leave LA, SC
- funding for Southern railroad, waterways
- conservative Southerner in cabinet

Compromise means end of Reconstruction

Legacy of Reconstruction
Republicans fail to protect rights they gave to former slaves

Unwillingness to distribute land blocks economic independence

Amendments abolish slavery, give basis for civil rights legislation

African-American schools, civic groups increase literacy, opportunity

Section 1 - The Politics of Reconstruction
Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan
Reconstruction—period of rebuilding after Civil War, 1865–1877
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
calls for 10% allegiance
Radical Republicans led by Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens
want to destroy power of former slaveholders
give full citizenship, suffrage to African Americans
Radical Reaction
1864 Wade-Davis Bill makes Congress responsible for Reconstruction
Lincoln uses
pocket veto
to kill Wade-Davis; Radicals outraged
Johnson Continues Lincoln’s Policies
President Andrew Johnson proposes own Presidential Reconstruction:
states must swear allegiance
annul war debts
ratify 13th Amendment

Johnson's plan does not address voting rights, land, laws for former slaves
States that had not applied under Lincoln agree to Johnson’s terms
some states do not fully comply
Presidential Reconstruction Comes to a
Standstill
Radical Republicans in Congress refuse new Southern legislators
Congress enlarges Freedmen’s Bureau—helps former slaves, poor whites
gives social services, medical care, education
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1866:
grants citizenship to African Americans
forbids black codes or discriminatory laws
Black codes restore many restrictions of slavery
Whites use violence to prevent blacks from improving their lives

Johnson
vetoes
Freedmen’s Bureau and Civil Rights Act
Alienates moderate Republicans; angers Radicals
Moderates and Radicals Join Forces
In mid-1866, moderate Republicans join Radicals in
Congress
to
override veto
Draft Fourteenth Amendment—makes African Americans full citizens
Most Southern states reject amendment; not ratified until 1868
1866 Congressional Elections
The main issue in the elections was Reconstruction Policy
Johnson jeered on tour urging election of supporters of his plan
Moderates, Radicals win 2/3 majority in Congress, can override veto
Reconstruction Act of 1867
1867 Reconstruction Act doesn’t recognize most new state governments
divides South into military districts
sets new conditions for reentry in Union

Johnson believes:
act unconstitutional
vetoes
Congress overrides
Johnson Impeached
Johnson was not enforcing Reconstruction policy
Radicals seek to impeach—formally charge with misconduct in office
Johnson fires Stanton—test constitutionality of Tenure of Office Act
House Radicals impeach Johnson; Senate does not convict
Ulysses S. Grant Elected
1868, Grant wins presidency with help of African-American vote
Fifteenth Amendment— gives voting rights to all, regardless of color
South does not enforce 14th, 15th Amendments
White Southerners use violence to prevent blacks from voting
Enforcement Act of 1870—federal government can punish violators
1867 Tenure of Office Act
Makes it illegal for the President to removecabinet officers "during the term of the president by whom they may have been appointed"
Appointed by Lincoln
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