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International Organizations: United Nations, League of Nations, International Monetary Fund
Transcript of International Organizations: United Nations, League of Nations, International Monetary Fund
By: Markethius, Rachel, George, Martha, and Tariq
The United Nations
The International Monetary Fund was conceived at a United Nations conference in New Hampshire, in 1944. It was founded later in 1945 and consisted of 188 countries. The countries that were in the group sought to build economic cooperation and avoid disasters like the Great Depression. Their main purpose is to maintain economic stability and to promote trade worldwide. The IMF quickly became the primary promoter of the capitalist global economy. Major industrial powers throughout its history guided the loan and guidance giving of the IMF. Like the World Bank, it aided a lot war-torn and Great Depression destroyed areas. Also, developing areas that needed financial assistance or other regions experiencing economic turmoil were given money to continue building up or to reform their economies. Along with money, the IMF required economic reform plans. For example, Mexico and SE Asia received loans in the 1990’s to accelerate recovery from recessions that were affecting multiple struggling areas. The IMF makes an effort to help both developing, struggling, and third world countries. State and national legislators have mixed opinions on the IMF based on the pros and cons, mainly pertaining to the attitudes towards business-oriented opportunities or free-market economies, which can be fragmented even within a political party. The International Monetary Fund has been a success in aiding crumbling areas worldwide for its 70 year existence.
Greece has produced a growing conflict worldwide because of their refusal to cut spending and pay back debt to the International Monetary Fund. Their innumerable social services costs the government a lot of money, leading them to request an IMF loan, which came along with reform plans. The plans set in place were designed to stimulate economic growth and patch the debt deficit by forcing the government to cut spending. However, because Greece is refusing, the loans are soon to be cut as well. The Greece crisis is negatively affecting other membering countries of the IMF (188 total), as well as nations using the Euro currency. This is one major country that is still using the IMF as it was originally founded for.
International Monetary Fund (in Washington D.C.)
The League of Nations
developed after WWII and dissolution of League of Nations
to promote peace and cooperation around the world-- nations more intertwined, more international law
Dumbarton Oaks Conference- formulation of organization by US, UK, China, USSR. Ratified in San Francisco by these four and France
originally 51 members, now 193 (3 nations not in it such as Palestine- not recognized as nation by all)
name originally used for nations against Axis powers
tensions- Cold War period b/t US and USSR, British colonies, US blocking Chinese app. for membership for 21 years
As of today, the UN has made many accomplishments, such as the maintaining of disease, the promotion of democracy, developments in human rights, and more.
It has expanded vastly, from the members that make it up, to the things they've accomplished
New York City, NY
Most loans to Afro-Eurasia
The League is most often associated with Woodrow Wilson. He often concerned himself with setting up the international organization, to maintain peace among nation-states, by giving speeches and public addresses, before and after WWI.
The League was not only an idea of Wilson, but he had a huge impact on the leagues structure, including his fourteen points, which set up the overall framework for negotiations of an armistice.
It was created due to the dissatisfaction with the management of inter-state relations, war a huge possibility with new technologies. It had been a proposed in 1914 by a British political scientist who believed that an organization of this sort would lessen the probability of war.
The League was the first international organization whose goal was international peace and this peace was supposed to be enforced by the Great powers within it.
However the Great powers often did not have the ability to, or the incentives, to take involvement in many global affairs. None of the Great powers intervened in the invasions of Ethiopia by Italy, blatantly ignoring the rules of war established.
It settled some disagreements between nations after WWI, but the decisions made to settle WWI did not appeal to many nations and could be described as a cause of WWII, because it failed to represent all of the nations involved in WWI and gave unfair reparations.
The League was decided to be replaced in 1943 at the conference of Tehran, finally ending in 1946, because it failed to involve all nations fairly and to follow its own principles (now the UN).