Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Nervous System

No description
by

Jane Bohlander

on 5 December 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Nervous System

The Nervous System
Cells
Nerves & Tracts
Impulses & The Synapse
2
3
4
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Neurons
Parts
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nerve.nida.jpg
Types
Sensory (afferent)
Motor (efferent)
Interneuron
Structure
http://wikieducator.org/Neuron_Creations
myelin
myelinated fibers
neurilemma
Glia
Astrocytes
BBB
By Otto Deiters [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons {PD-1996}
http://ohsu2015.wikispaces.com/8.24.11+-+Peripheral+Nervous+System
Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License.
By Dantecat (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Microglia
Smaller
phagocytosis
Oligodendrocytes
Hold together
myelin
Schwann cells
neurilemma
? [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Nerves
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Illu_nerve_structure.jpg
Tracts
By Nephron (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Neuron_with_oligodendrocyte_and_myelin_sheath.svg: *Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg: LadyofHats derivative work: Andrew c (Neuron_with_oligodendrocyte_and_myelin_sheath.svg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
white matter
gray matter
Brain
Spinal cord
Cranial Nerves
Spinal Nerves
Autonomic
Somatic
Sensory nerves
Impulse
self-propagating wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron's plasma membrane
Structure & Function of the Body, 13th Ed. Mosby Elsevier. pg 193
initiated by stimulus
changes balance of Na+ ions inside and outside of a section of the neuron
change in charge signals next section
saltatory conduction
Synapse
where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another
Structure & Function of the Body, 13th Ed. Mosby Elsevier. pg 193
presynaptic vs. postsynaptic neurons
synaptic knob
synaptic cleft
plasma membrane
Brainstem
Medulla oblongata
@ top of spinal cord
gray/white matter
reticular formation
Pons
Midbrain
2-way conduction paths
reflex centers
vital centers
Cerebellum
Structure
Back, lower section
(under occipital lobe)
2nd largest part
Outer layer: gray matter
Interior: white matter
Function
Movements
brain coordination
smooth, coordinated movements
equilibrium
normal postures
Diencephalon
between midbrain and cerebrum
Hypothalmus
below thalmus
one of the smallest parts of the brain
one of the most important parts of the brain
controls vital organs
Thalamus
water balance
hormone secretion
body temperature
sleep cycles
appetite
emotions
gray matter
mostly dendrite/cell bodies
Helps produce sensations
Associates sensations with emotions
Part of arousal/alerting mechanism
Cerebrum
largest, uppermost part
ridges = convolutions or gyri
grooves = sulci
deepest sulci = fissures
right/left hemispheres
4 major lobes
frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
Structure
Exterior- Cerebral cortex
thin surface layer of gray matter ( dendrites & cell bodies
Interior
white matter - bundled nerve fibers
cerebral nuclei = islands of gray matter
automatic movements/postures
Function
neurons work with neurons in other parts of the brain and spinal cord
thinking
consciousness
memory
sensations
emotions
willed movements
Damage
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) - aka stroke
hemorage or stoppage of blood
lose voluntary function of body on opposite side
Parkinson Disease
lack of neurotransmitter dopamine in the cerebral nuclei in cerebrum
Structure
typically 17-18 inches long
occipital bone to the bottom of the 1st lumbar vertebra
By Polarlys and Mikael Häggström [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
H-shaped center is gray matter
columns of white matter form the outer parts (aka tracts)
Tracts
Ascending
Descending
all axons in 1 tract serve 1 general function
Function
switching incoming sensory impulses to outgoing motor impulses = reflex
"switchboard" of the body
sensory - "up" to brain
Reflexes
withdrawal
(hot surface)
jerk
(knee jerk)
loss of sensation
Anesthesia
impulses cannot travel past an
often leads to
motor - "down" to body
Paralysis
loss of ability to make voluntary movements
Coverings & Fluid Spaces
Coverings
nerve tissue is tender - needs protection
2 layers:
cover spinal cord and brain
meninges
dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater
bone
Fluid Space
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
continually made from blood, circulates through the ventricles in the brain and is reabsorbed into the blood
12 pair
come from brain stem
conduct impulses between brain and structures in head, neck, thoracic & abdominal cavities
injury
Structure
31 pair
8 cervical
1 pair coccygeal
5 sacrospinal
5 lumbar
12 thoracic
branch out
plexus
By Brachial_plexus.svg: Selketderivative work: mcstrother (Marshall Strother) (Brachial_plexus.svg) [<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0">CC-BY-SA-3.0</a>],
Functions
conduct impulses between spinal cord and parts of the body not connected by cranial nerves
sensory
motor
sensation
movement
By Dermatoms.svg: Ralf Stephan (mailto:ralf@ark.in-berlin.de) Derivative work: Mono (Dermatoms.svg) [GFDL 1.2 (www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/fdl-1.2.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Dermatomes
Function
regulates involuntary functions
Functional Anatomy
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Autonomic
Nervous
System
autonomic neurons
dendrites & cell bodies
axons
ganglia
preganglionic neurons
postganglionic neurons
autonomic effectors
somatic
Autonomic Conduction Paths
Visceral Effectors
Somatic Effectors
2-neuron relays
Spinal Cord
or
BrainStem
Preganglionic
Neurons
Postganglionic
Neurons
Autonomic
Effector
synapse
Spinal Cord
or
Brain Stem
Somatic
Effector
Structure
Function
Structure
Function
preg. neurons:
dendrites/cell bodies in gray matter of T and upper L parts of spinal cord
postg. neurons:
end at multiple organs
emergency system
stress
symp. impulses increase to many visceral effectors
heart rate
blood pressure
blood vessels in muscles
sweat/adrenal glands
digestive tract contractions
and secretions
flight-or-flight
preg. neurons:
dendrites/cell bodies in gray matter of brain stem and upper S parts of spinal cord
postg. neurons:
dendrites/cell bodies in ganglia
has control over visceral effectors under normal conditions
heart rate
digestive tract contractions
digestive juice secretions
regulate body's automatic, involuntary functions in order to maintain or quickly restore homeostasis
sympathetic
parasympathetic
Fear, anger
Sympathetic
activity
Affected by emotion
By The original uploader was Fuzzform at English Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
synapse with many postg. neurons (short axons)
long axons
dendrites/cell bodies in symp. ganglia
ganglia are in front of/beside spinal column
axons extend away from b.s. or s.c. before coming to ganglia in head, thoracic, and abdominal cavities
short axons into nearby structures (single effector)
a type of oligodendocyte
nodes of Ranvier
Neurotransmitters
acetylcholine
in spinal cord and neuromuscular junctions
catecholamines
endorphins & enkephalins
sleep, motor function, mood, pleasure recognition
norepinephrine, dopamine, seratonin
spinal cord and brain, in pain conduction pathways
Reflex Arc
two-neuron
three-neuron
bypasses trip to brain
sensory and motor neurons
sensory, motor, interneuron
group of nerve cell bodies in PNS
go through ganglion
Autonomic Nuerotransmitters
Cholinergic fibers (release acetylchoine)
parasymp. preganglionic axon
parasymp. postganglionic axon
symp. preganglionic axon
Adrenergic fibers (release norepinephrine)
symp. postganglionic axon
Full transcript