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Nervous System

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by

Jane Bohlander

on 12 December 2017

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Transcript of Nervous System

The Nervous System
Cells
Nerves & Tracts
Impulses & The Synapse
2
3
4
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Neurons
Parts
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nerve.nida.jpg
Types
Structure
Neuroglial Cells
Astrocytes
http://ohsu2015.wikispaces.com/8.24.11+-+Peripheral+Nervous+System
Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License.
Microglia
smaller
phagocytosis
Oligodendrocytes
hold together
myelin
Schwann cells
? [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Nerves
By Neuron_with_oligodendrocyte_and_myelin_sheath.svg: *Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg: LadyofHats derivative work: Andrew c (Neuron_with_oligodendrocyte_and_myelin_sheath.svg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Brain
Spinal cord
Cranial Nerves
Spinal Nerves
Autonomic
Somatic
Sensory nerves
Nerve Impulse
an action potential in one section causes current to flow to adjacent section
saltatory conduction
Synapse
where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another
Structure & Function of the Body, 13th Ed. Mosby Elsevier. pg 193
presynaptic vs. postsynaptic neurons
synaptic knob
synaptic cleft
plasma membrane
Brainstem
Pons
Midbrain
reflex centers
vital centers
Cerebellum
Structure
Back, lower section
(under occipital lobe)
2nd largest part
Outer layer: gray matter
Interior: white matter
Function
Movements
brain coordination
smooth, coordinated movements
equilibrium
normal postures
Diencephalon
Hypothalmus
below thalmus
one of the smallest parts of the brain
one of the most important parts of the brain
controls vital organs
Thalamus
water balance
hormone secretion
body temperature
sleep cycles
appetite
emotions
between 2 hemispheres, above the midbrain
gray matter
mostly dendrite/cell bodies
Helps produce sensations
Associates sensations with emotions
Part of arousal/alerting mechanism
Cerebrum
largest, uppermost part
ridges = convolutions or gyri
grooves = sulcus (p. sulci)
deepest sulci = fissures
4 major lobes
frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
Structure
Exterior- Cerebral cortex
thin surface layer of gray matter
Interior
white matter - bundled nerve fibers
cerebral nuclei = islands of gray matter
automatic movements/postures
Function
neurons work with neurons in other parts of the brain and spinal cord
Structure
typically 17-18 inches long
occipital bone to the bottom of the 1st lumbar vertebra
By Polarlys and Mikael Häggström [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Tracts
Ascending
Descending
all axons in 1 tract serve 1 general function
Function
"switchboard" of the body
sensory - "up" to brain
loss of sensation
Anesthesia
impulses cannot travel past an
often leads to
motor - "down" to body
Paralysis
loss of ability to make voluntary movements
Coverings & Fluid Spaces
Coverings
nerve tissue is tender - needs protection
2 layers:
cover spinal cord and brain
meninges
dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater
bone
Fluid Space
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
continually made from blood, circulates through the ventricles in the brain and is reabsorbed into the blood
12 pair
come from brain stem
conduct impulses between brain and structures in head, neck, & trunk
injury
Structure
31 pair
8 cervical
1 coccygeal
5 sacrospinal
5 lumbar
12 thoracic
branch out
plexus
Functions
conduct impulses between spinal cord and parts of the body not connected by cranial nerves
sensory
motor
sensation
movement
By Dermatoms.svg: Ralf Stephan (mailto:ralf@ark.in-berlin.de) Derivative work: Mono (Dermatoms.svg) [GFDL 1.2 (www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/fdl-1.2.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Dermatomes
Function
regulates involuntary functions
Functional Anatomy
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Autonomic
Nervous
System
autonomic neurons
dendrites & cell bodies in brain or s.c.
ganglia
axon = preganglionic fibers
postganglionic neurons
visceral effector
somatic
Structure
Function
Structure
Function
preganglionic fibers
gray matter in T and upper L
postganglionic fibers end at multiple organs
emergency system
stress
symp. impulses increase to many visceral effectors
heart rate
blood pressure
blood vessels in muscles
sweat/adrenal glands
digestive tract contractions
and secretions
fight-or-flight
preg. neurons:
dendrites/cell bodies in brain stem and upper S parts of s.c.
postg. neurons:
short axons into nearby structures (single effector)
has control over visceral effectors under normal conditions
heart rate
digestive tract contractions
digestive juice secretions
regulate body's automatic, involuntary functions in order to maintain or quickly restore homeostasis
sympathetic
parasympathetic
Fear, anger, nervous
Sympathetic
activity
Affected by emotion
By The original uploader was Fuzzform at English Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
axons go to ganglia near effectors
a type of oligodendocyte
Neurotransmitters
acetylcholine
stimulates muscle contractions
monoamines
amino acids
sleep, motor function, mood, pleasure recognition
withdrawal reflex
epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, seratonin
reflex center in CNS switches incoming sensory impulses to outgoing motor impulses = reflex
Reflex Arc
Autonomic Nuerotransmitters
nerve cells
transmit nerve impulses
cell body
dendrites
axon
By Structure
By Function
sensory
(afferent)
interneurons
motor (efferent)
unipolar
bipolar
multipolar
multipolar
granular
cytoplasm
lysosomes
Golgi apparatus
neurofibrils
chromatophilic substance
ribosomes
nucleus
branching ends
myelin
Schwann cells
neurilemma
Nodes of Ranvier
In the Cell Body
http://wikieducator.org/Neuron_Creations
myelinated cells
in PNS & CNS
look white
form white matter
unmyelinated cells
axon & cell bodies in CNS
form gray matter
Schwann cells
oligodendocytes
in CNS
between neurons & blood vessels
structural support
regulate nutrients & ions
Ependymal Cells
epithelial-like membrane
cover parts of the brain/spinal cord
inner linings
spaces inside brain/cord
Functions
Sensory
Integrative
Motor
receptors
effectors
somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
Distribution of Ions
ions cross membrane
Resting Potential
more Na+ outside
more K+ inside
K+ diffuses out faster than Na+ in
outside is more positive
Potential Changes
a stimuli affects resting potential
depolarizing
inside becomes positive, outside negative
threshold potential
action potential
Action Potential
sodium gates open
membrane depolarizes
potassium gates open
membrane repolarizes
surface of cell membrane is positive to inside
Cell Membrane Potential
myelinated
all-or-none
neuropeptides
around 50 IDed
Impulse Processing
Neuronal Pools
Facilitation
Convergence
Divergence
excitatory
vs inhibitory
group of neurons
common function
excitatory or inhibitory effects
if the net effect is excitatory
excitatory
and a threshold is reached
outgoing impulse triggered
and threshold is not reached
neuron is more exitable
incoming impulse
or inhibitory
facilitation
incoming impulse
can come from 1 or more neurons
axons coming from different places to the same neuron
to any 1 neuron in a pool
exiting impulse
leaving from one neuron passing to multiple neurons
within a pool or to outside the pool
axon = nerve fibers
nerve = bundle of nerve fibers
sensory nerves
motor nerves
mixed nerves
knee jerk reflex
2 neurons
sensory to motor
interneuron to
sensory to
motor
100 billion multipolar neurons
even more nerve fibers
left & right hemspheres
dendrites & cell bodies - 75% of all dendrites in the nervous system
interpret sensory info
initiate voluntary movement
memory
reason
intelligence
personality
Motor Areas
in frontal lobe, in front of central sulcus
31 segments
spinal nerves
funiculi
axons all start in one part of body and end in another
impulses sent through brain stem into spinal cord
Sensory Areas
cause movement
interpret incoming impulses
sensation
Association Areas
not primarily motor or sensory
connect areas of the brain
analyze/interpret sensory info
involved in memory, reasoning, verbalizing, judgement, emotion
Hemisphere Dominance
both sides do basic functions, but usually one side is more dominant
controlling use and understanding of language
left is dominant for 90%
orienting motor tasks, interpreting musical patterns, visual info, emotional/intuitive thinking
non-dominant side also does nonverbal functions:
corpus callosum
connects to the two
gray matter
Medulla oblongata
Damage:
tremors
muscle tone
loss of equilibrium
inaccurate movements
dorsal root
ventral root
myelin
dura mater
Full transcript