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Transcript of Roman Military
Roman Military Camps-Protection
"Roman Infantry ." Photobucket. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2014. <http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh272/aquila_deus/eastern/roman_east-1024.png>.
The Roman army was made up of heavily armed and armored infantry. The largest part was the legion which consisted of around 5,000 men. The legion was divided into 10 numbered “cohorts” with the first being twice the size of the others. Each cohort than consisted of “six “centuries” with about 80 men per century. Last but not least the centuries were divided into ten counterbernia of 8 men each. Each century was commanded by a centurion who was either a seasoned soldier or a political appointee. The legion was commanded by 2 or more tribunes. Often the tribunes were young aristocrats who needed military experience. Also affixed to the legion as a whole were a small group of cavalry, some artillery, and an “eagle-bearer” carrying the legion’s standard.
The military camps consisted of four walls that were in the shape of a quadrilateral with parallel sides and rounded corners. On top of the walls, there were fences called palisades. Palisades are walls made out of pieces of wood and metal that are used to keep things out. Also, there were walkways on top of the walls that were patrolled by soldiers, and used to watch for dangers. There were ditches dug around the camps to keep enemies and dangerous animals out. The camps had light houses, fortlets, signal stations, and watch towers that were used to look for enemies, and warn the camp about any threats. Many roads ran through the camp for transportation and communication. Plus, there were gates on all walls of the camp for exiting and entering.
Roman military camps were made up of three areas.There was the praetorium,retentura, praetentura. The praetorium was the center of the camp where the commander's sleeping quarters and head quarters were. Stores, hospitals, and workshops were located in this area. Food and supplies were also stored in this area if the camp was in the territory of an enemy. The praetentura was located near the front of the camp, closes to the enemy. The strongest and toughest soldiers were barracked in this area. If the camp was attacked then the best soldiers were in the front and ready to go. The retentura was the back area of the camp where the rest of the soldiers slept and lived. Half of the military forces were situated in this part of the camp. Roads ran through the entire camp for transportation, and there were gates on all sides of the camp to enter and exit out of.
Roman Military Camp: Setup
Ranks and Setup of the Military
Remains of an old Roman Military Camp wall
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Picture of a Roman Military Camp
Modern Day Connection
By: Siddhant C. & Alexandra T.
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The soldiers were equipped in identical style. They wore armor from shoulders to waist made of scales, mail, or bands, a protective leather skirt below this with sandals. There was also a large helmet, a heavy, somewhat cylindrical shield with a central boss, and greaves (shin guards) . The main weapons were fairly heavy throwing spears and short, broad sword. Some may also have carried some kind of knife, and the heavy shield could be used effectively to strike an enemy. Cavalry were equipped more lightly than infantry and often carried a stabbing spear or lance. Legionary cavalry were often more important for communications and scouting than for a battle. The soldiers carried their own supplies so they could decrease the size of the supplies trains. This idea was a reform made by a Roman general by the name of Gaius Marius and thus, was deemed “Marius’s Mules”.
Equipment , Outfits and Footwear
Standards and Legions
Two types of camps: Auxiliary vs. Marching
Auxiliary Camps were used for long periods
of time, while marching camps were camps
that were used for one night or a few nights.
A standard was a flag, pennant, or banner that was attached to a pole that represented different parts of the military like the legions and cavalry. Cavalry standards usually had a large snake on them. Legion standards had different animals on them that had a special spiritual meaning to that legion. Standards were used for communication in battle, and they were waved, lowered, or raised to indicate what the army was going to do next. During the times of the Roman Republic the standards had S.P.Q.R. (Senate and People of Rome). The standards during this time represented the people of Rome and pride that the military had.
Roman legions were made up of about 6,000 men. 5,000 of the men were able to fight while the other thousand were doctors, field surgeons, cooks, and clerks. The legion had a main commander who was appointed by the emperor. There were other people who held high ranks and controlled smaller sections of the legions. In the legions soldiers were put into cohorts. The soldiers were put into cohorts by their strength and experience. Experienced and strong soldiers were put into one cohort and new soldiers who were inexperienced were put into one cohort. The soldiers in the cohorts were the people who made up most of the legion.
Common Roman Foot-Soldier
Roman Military Legion names in Latin
Some of Augustus's 28 Original Legions
The United States Military has ranks just like the Roman Military had. The highest ranks are still held by the strongest, wisest,and most experienced people who work to protect the country. Today the United States Military has bases throughout the United Sates and foreign countries. These bases are equivalent to the Roman Military camps, but they are permanent (can't pack them up and leave). They contain places to sleep, train, eat, and buy basic necessities just like how the Roman Military camps had sleeping areas and shops. Also, the United States Military still wears uniforms and gear to protect themselves while fighting just like the Romans did. Plus, different branches of the military have their own names and flags, (Navy, Air force, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps). The branches of the military could be compared to Roman legions. Roman legions had there own flags with symbols on them and had there own names. Lastly, the United States Military and the Roman Military both fought to keep their countries safe. Both the Roman and United States Military have many similarities.