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Early Contacts with Neighboring Countries

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by

Andrea Acullador

on 22 September 2015

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Transcript of Early Contacts with Neighboring Countries

• umbrellas, porcelains, gongs, the manufacture of gun powder, mentallurgy, and mining methods
•arrange marriage
•Wearing white clothing, instead of black (for mourning the death of family)
Chinese
Chinese traders competed with the Arabs
Sung porcelain
Chao Jukua’s Chu fan-chi (1225)
8th century : type of currency in the form of
barter rings
12th century: gold coins (
piloncitos
)

Economic and Cultural Exchanges

-Between 900 and 1200 A.D., a group of people called
Orang Dampuan
from Southern Annam (Vietnam), established trading posts in Sulu. A
flourishing trade
developed between Champa (Annamese Kingdom) and the people of Sulu who were called
Buranun
. This trade proved favorable to the Orang Dampuans. In a fit of jealopusy, the Buranuns massacred some Orang Dampuans causing the others to fell and return to Champa. It was not until the 13th century that they would return to Sulu to trade peacefully once more.
Arab Trade Routes in Southest Asia
- Ancient Filipinos were expert
seafarers
and
boat

builders
. Those were used to travel far and wide to trade with nearby Southeast and East Asian neighbors.
- The Philippines had outside trade contacts, and along these, varied cultural exchanges took place.
O.W. Wolters
said such a trade may have been there as early as the third century, based on the pearls and gold excavated in Funan.
Sulu
was rich in
pearls
and
gold
was abundant in the country.



Early Trade Routes and Contacts
- The Philippines already had trade and cultural exchanges with its Asian and Southeast Asian neighbors.

- The seemingly scattered island group of people actively engaged in trade and commerce with their neighbors
Early Contacts with Neighboring Countries
(900 - 1400 A.D.)
-Filipino historians and archeologists believe the Filipino-Chinese trade contacts began around the 9th century during the Tang dynasty (618-906 A.D.) They cite as evidence Tang stonewares that were found in the Babuyan Islands, along the coasts of Ilocos, Pangasinan, Mindoro, Batangas, Manila, Bohol, Cebu, Jolo, Cagayan de Oro.
The famous
pearl trade
of Sulu also attracted another group of people known as the
Banjar
of nearby Borneo. Regular trade relations ensued between Sulu and Banjarmassin. The Buranuns, who had not yet forgotten their tragic experience with the Orang Dampuans, were also suspicious of the Banjars. But the traders of Banjarmassin, aware of the fate of the Orang Dampuans, were more diplomatic. Instead of antagonizing the Buranuns, they brought their beautiful princess to Sulu and offered her as a bride to the Buranun prince, who eventually married her.
Arab Traders
Arab traders relocated to the Malay Peninsula where they sought an alternative route starting from Malacca and passing through Borneo and the Philippines to reach Taiwan.
They continued to carry Southeast Asian goods to the Western world using this southern route. They also carried Philippine goods on board Arab ships to the Chinese mainland through Canton.
So keen was the competition that the Arab ships carried non- Chinese goods amounting to 20-40% of the total cargo. This lasted up to the Javanese or Madjapahit period (1337-1478).

The Chinese trade in the Philippines greatly improved during the
Ming dynasty
(1368-1650).
During this time
Emperor Yung-lo
sent a
fleet of vessels
to the Philippines, under the command of Admiral Cheng Ho, to visit Lingayen, Manila Bay, Mindoro, and Sulu in 1405-1406, 1408-1410, and 1417. - The Chinese Emperor even tried to impose its suzerainty over Luzon by sending Ko Ch’a-lao as governor. Emperor Yung-lo’s death, however, put an end to this ambitious plan.
Cultural Exchanges
Influenced indigenous lifestyle, customs and religious beliefs
Language, system of writing

Chinese words adopted in Tagalog
Indians of Indian
•Malays
•Hindu
•Sanskrit
(Sanskrit variations in Visayan and Maguindanaoan language)
agama - religion
baginda - emperor
sutra - silk
•MYTHS:
-
Indra Batara
- Lord of the Universe
-
Idiyanale
- god of agriculture
-
Agni
- god of fire
-
Padmapani
(figurine of the Hindu goddess) Butuan(300 A.D)

• Cord and the Veil (Philippine catholic wedding)
• Laguna Copperplate discoverd in Pagsanjan, Laguna river delta(1986)
The Coming of Islam
Islam spread outside of Arabia in
two stages
:
1) Islam was brought to the rest of the Middle East, Northern Africa, Spain & Central Asia
2) Muslim missionaries traveled to India, China & Southeast Asia
Islam was introduced by
Tuan Masha'ika
Rajah Baginda
arrived from Sumatra (1480)
Abu Bakr
succeeded in establishing government similar to sultanate of Arabia
Serif Kabungsuan
- first sultan of Maguindanao
Abu Bakr
Teachings of Islam
Koran (Qur'an)
- The holy book of the muslims. It is written in Arabic. The Koran is considered the word of the Supreme Creator, Allah.

The teachings of the Koran are the following:
1. There is only one God, Allah, the creator of everything.
2. Allah is a just and merciful God and his desire that all should repent of their sins, purify themselves so they could enter Paradise after death.

4. It forbids any human or animal representation in their art. Only geometric patterns are allowed.
5. Eating pork, drinking wine, gambling and other vices are forbidden in orthodox Islam.
6. Forbids loans and usury.
7. Muslims are duty-bound to help needy people.
8. Doing all grave sins deserve serious punishment.
9. Every Muslims must have goodness expressed in faith in God and virtues.
10.Followers of Allah has to observe the following ritualsor obligations.

Rituals or Obligations:
shahada
- declaration of faith in the oneness of God
Mecca
- praying facing the east
salah
- five times a day
sawm
- fasting
zakat - giving alms
hadjj
- one-time pilgrimage to Mecca
Fasting
-observed during the Ramadan -held at the 9th month of Muslim calendar.
The Sultanate
Unlike the barangays of the non-Muslim ancient Filipinos which were smaller in size and very much decentralized.
The sultanate governed a much larger territory through centralized network of officials

SULTAN
RUMA BICHARA
Other Officials
Waiir
- minister/datu
Maja rajah
- customs chief
Rajah laut
- chief of the seas
Qadi
- chief interpreter of the muslim adats (traditions), law and muslim court (the Shariah)
Thank You!
Prepared by:
Group 2 (FV1231)

Acullador, Andrea Syl
Gutierrez, Hazel Grace
Hanapin, Denise Faye
Malubay, Karla Theresse
Santos, Geraldine
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