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Transcript of Reconstruction Era
> Anthony was arrested for voting in a 1872 Rochester, New York election. She also founded the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890.
> Women would not receive the right to vote until the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920 (thirteen years after Anthony’s death). > The only way to break the stalemate was with a back room deal concocted by a small group of congressmen. In the deal, the North got their president (Rutherford B. Hayes) and the South got the military to pull-out (no more military occupation) of the South, thus ending Reconstruction.
> The Southern Democrats, better known as the “Redeemers” regained control of Southern local and state governments. This led to the passage of discriminatory laws against African American rights.
> The South regained “Home Rule” and became known as the “Solid South.” Civil Rights in most Southern states would take another 100 years to achieve. > Some slaves loyally stuck with their owners, while others let out their pent-up bitterness by pillaging their former master’s land, property, and even whipping the old master.
> Eventually, even resisting plantation owners had to give up their slaves, and afterwards tens of thousands of freed slaves took to the roads to find new work or look for lost loved ones. Women suffrage advocates were disappointed by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, since they didn’t give women suffrage.
After all, women had gathered petitions and had helped African Americans gain their rights.
Frederick Douglass believed in the women’s movement, but believed that it was now “the Negro’s hour.” Women Continue to Fight for Suffrage Grant Dealing with Corruption > Ulysses S. Grant easily defeated Democrat, Horatio Seymour in the election of 1868.
> Grant served two terms as president (his first and only political position).
> Grant’s time in office was quite tarnished due to widespread corruption by political and personal appointees. In such scandals as Black Friday, the Whiskey Ring, and Credit Mobilier.
> Grant’s administration also dealt with one of the largest economic depressions in American history, the Panic of 1873.
Election of 1868
The Grant Administration > The group was called the “Invisible Empire of the South” or the Ku Klux Klan. The group was established in Tennessee in 1866 by former Confederates.
> The Klan’s first leader (Grand Wizard) was Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest.
> The organization’s main goal was to scare African Americans into not voting or not seeking jobs, etc.
> This radical group undermined much of what abolitionists sought to do. American Terrorists – The Ku Klux Klan By 1870, all of the states had complied with the standards of Reconstruction, and in 1877, the last of the states were given their home rule back, and Reconstruction ended. > Johnson- 1st president to be put on trial for impeachment.
> Johnson was not allowed to testify by his lawyers, who argued that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional and Johnson was acting under the Constitution, not the law.
> On May 16, 1868, Johnson was acquitted of all charges by a single vote, as seven Republican senators with consciences voted “not-guilty” (interestingly, those seven never secured a political office again).
Andrew Johnson – Not Guilty The 14th Amendment was adopted by the Radical Republicans, who sought to instill the same ideas of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866:
(1) all African Americans were American citizens
(2) if a state denied citizenship to Blacks, then its representatives in the Electoral College were lowered
(3) former Confederates could not hold federal or state office
(4) the federal debt was guaranteed while the Confederate one was erased On December 6, 1865, President Johnson declared that the South had satisfied all of the conditions needed, and that the Union was now restored. The Lincoln Assassination When Andrew Johnson took power, the radicals thought that he would do what they wanted, but he soon proved them wrong by basically taking Lincoln’s policy and issuing his own Reconstruction proclamation.
Johnson’s plan pushed for Confederate disfranchisement (right to vote removed), the Confederate debt would be repudiated, and states had to ratify the 13th Amendment (a law that officially banned slavery in the U.S.) > The Wade-Davis Bill required 50% of a Southern states’ voters to take oaths of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than the 10% Plan.
> Lincoln used a pocket-veto and let the bill expire and the 10% Plan remained.
There were now two types of Republicans: the moderates, who shared the same views as Lincoln and the radicals, who believed the South should be harshly punished. > The bureau also delivered the word of God and attempted to help African Americans find jobs.
> The bureau was not as effective as it could have been. The organization continued to discriminate African Americans and it expired in 1872 after much criticism by racist Whites Freed Slaves in New Bern, North Carolina > The church became the focus of the Black community life in the years following the Civil War.
> Emancipation also meant education for African Americans, but despite all the gains made, freedmen still faced severe discrimination and would have to wait a century before truly attaining their rights. Political Cartoon of Benedict Arnold, the Devil, and Jefferson Davis The Southern way of life had been ruined, as crops and farms were destroyed, the slaves had been freed, the cities were burnt down, but still many Southerners remained defiant. Who would be in charge of Reconstruction? What to do with Jefferson Davis? > How to reintegrate the Southern states into the Union?
> On what terms would the nation be reunited?
>What was the status of the former Confederate states?
>How would citizenship be defined? On your own paper, answer these questions:
1. What was the purpose of Reconstruction?
2. Why was it necessary?
3. Was it successful? WHY or WHY NOT? Do Now > Many Southerners regarded Reconstruction as worse than the war itself, as they resented the upending of their social and racial system. The Heritage of Reconstruction Susan B. Anthony Political Cartoon of the “Redeemers” > The end of Reconstruction was due in part to the Compromise of 1877, in what some historians call the final battle of the Civil War.
> The Republicans ran an old Union veteran, Rutherford B. Hayes and the Democrats ran Samuel Tilden, a New York “Bourbon Democrat” that was pro-business and anti-corruption.
> The two presidential candidates were at a stalemate (almost 50/50 in the popular vote and electoral college). Election of 1876 William H. Seward Lucky to be alive during Reconstruction. He was supposed to be one of the men killed at Ford Theater when Lincoln was shot. His assassin backed out at the last minute.
>He would go on to dominate American politics and foreign policy during the Reconstruction years.
> In 1867, Secretary of State William H. Seward bought Alaska from Russia to the United States for $7.2 million.
>Most of the public jeered his act as “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Ice-box.”
Only later, when oil and gold were discovered, did Alaska prove to be a huge bargain. Seward’s Icebox Carpetbagger African Americans began to organize politically, and their main vehicle was the Union League. It became a network of political clubs that educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates, and later even built churches and schools, and recruited militias for protection.
African American women attended the parades and rallies of Black communities. Realities of Radical Reconstruction 15th Amendment The Reconstruction Act of March 2, 1867
> South divided into five military districts
> Each district headed by general backed by soldiers
> Generals to see states held constitutional conventions
> Delegates chosen by ALL male voters
> Confederate leaders not allowed to vote or hold office Reconstruction by Force > In the Senate, the leader of the radicals was Charles Sumner, long since recovered from his caning by Preston Brooks, and in the House, the radical leader was Thaddeus Stevens, an old, sour man who had been a staunch abolitionist and crusader for the Civil Rights Bill.
> The radicals wanted to keep the South out of the Union as long as possible and totally change its economy and the moderates wanted a quicker Reconstruction. What happened was a compromise between the two extremes. Republican’s Compromise Johnson Impeachment Trial Johnson at the Dawn of Impeachment In 1867, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, which provided that the president had to secure the consent of the Senate before removing his appointees once they had been approved by the Senate (one reason was to keep Edwin M. Stanton, a Republican spy, in office).
However, when Johnson dismissed Stanton early in 1868, the Republicans had Constitutional grounds to impeach him. Andrew Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson wanted to lower the amount of Republicans in Congress, so he began a series of “Round the Circle Speeches.”
> heckled by the audience
> he hurled back insults
> gave “give ‘em hell” speeches
> generally denounced the radicals Problems Continue with Johnson Congress vs. Johnson Johnson repeatedly vetoed Republican-passed bills, such as a bill extending the life of the Freedman’s Bureau, and he also vetoed the Civil Rights Bill of 1866, which conferred rights of citizenship.
Congress moved to protect blacks:
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Protected blacks through courts rather than through army
Blacks made citizens
Illegal to treat person different because of color
President Johnson vetoed the bill
It went against states’ rights
Congress over rode his veto Johnson Clashes with Congress Political Cartoon Portraying Johnson as a Southern Sympathizer In December, 1865, when many of the Southern states came to be reintegrated into the Union, among them were former Confederates and Democrats, and most Republicans were disgusted to see their former enemies on hand to reclaim seats in Congress. Congressional Reconstruction Under the NEW BLACK CODES -Blacks could not:
> Testify against whites in court
> Serve on juries
> Own a gun
> Hold a public meeting
> Rent property in cities
> Blacks could only hold certain jobs – usually in agriculture
> Blacks who did not have job – assigned to whites Black Codes Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson came from very poor and humble beginnings in East Tennessee.
He served in Congress for many years (he was the only Confederate congressman not to leave Congress when the rest of the South seceded).
He was feared for his reputation of having a short temper and being a great fighter, was a dogmatic champion of states’ rights and the Constitution.
Because he was a Tennessean, he never earned the trust of the North and never regained the confidence of the South. 17th U.S. President, Andrew Johnson > Sadly though, Lincoln was assassinated. This left the 10% Plan’s future in question.
Lincoln was shot and killed just five days after the surrender at Appomattox Court House. Lincoln was attending the popular British play, Our American Cousin.
> During the play, Confederate sympathizer/actor, John Wilkes Booth snuck into Lincoln’s box and shot the president with a pistol. Booth attempted to escape, but was tracked down and killed.
> When Andrew Johnson took power, the radicals thought that he would do what they wanted, but he soon proved them wrong by basically taking Lincoln’s policy and issuing his own Reconstruction proclamation.
> Johnson’s plan pushed for Confederate disfranchisement (right to vote removed), the Confederate debt would be repudiated, and states had to ratify the 13th Amendment (a law that officially banned slavery in the U.S.) Lincoln’s Assassination Lincoln’s Plans for Reuniting the Nation > Abraham Lincoln believed that the South had never legally withdrawn from the Union, restoration was to be relatively simple.
> In his plan for restoring the Union, the southern states could be reintegrated into the Union if and when a state had only 10% of its voters pledge and take an oath to the Union, and acknowledged the emancipation of the slaves (known as the Ten Percent Plan).
> The Radical Republicans (led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner) felt strict punishment was due for the South for all the years of strife. They feared that the leniency of the 10 % Plan would allow the Southerners to re-enslave the newly freed African Americans, so they attempted to push the Wade-Davis Bill through Congress. Plans for Reconstruction Oliver O. Howard and the Freedmen’s Bureau > In order to train the unskilled and unlettered freed slaves, the Freedman’s Bureau was set up on March 3, 1865.
Union General Oliver O. Howard headed the organization.
> The bureau taught about 200,000 African Americans how to read (its greatest success), since most former slaves wanted to narrow the literary gap between them and Whites.
> The bureau also delivered the word of God and attempted to help African Americans find jobs.
The bureau was not as effective as it could have been. The organization continued to discriminate African Americans and it expired in 1872 after much criticism by racist Whites. The Freedmen’s Bureau At first, the free Black community faced a confusing situation, as many slave owners re-enslaved their slaves after Union troops left.
Other planters resisted emancipation through legal means, citing that emancipation wasn’t valid until local or state courts decided. Freedmen Define Freedom Part 15 - Reconstruction 1st Ku Klux Klan Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens Black Codes will lead to the Notorious "Jim Crow Laws” As Republicans gained control of Congress, they passed the bills into laws with a 2/3 vote and thus overrode Johnson’s veto.
The 13th Amendment freed all slaves in the United States. The amendment had to be ratified by all states and placed in their state constitutions. African American men also began to hold political offices, as men like Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce served in Congress (they represented Mississippi). http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=1302419n