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Transcript of Disaster Management
Complex emergencies Q: Relationship between disasters and development? Development Connections: Health system in near total despair An example from Afghanistan Interruption of development programs roadblocks for poverty reduction Development Vulnerability Development can increase vulnerability Development can decrease vulnerability Population growth Rapid unchecked urbanization Settlements in unsafe areas Improper disposal of waste Development of disaster mitigation projects Analytical tools New technology As well as Floods Hurricanes Volcano eruptions Typhoons Tsunamis fire landslide flooding sinking ferries Helen Backlund Inga Marie List
Wara Ponce de León Disaster management cycle Four steps Natural Hazards Industrial accidents Technical accidents Production, use and transportation of Hazards materials Forest fires Sudden spread of contagious diseases Armed conflict War Environmental emergencies Pandemic emergencies Complex emergencies Earthquakes Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery How can disasters be addressed? Developing countries are especially vulnerable to disasters Directly - in cases of epidemics of infectious diseases
Indirectly - breakdown of infrastructure and Many of these disasters have a public health significance Water Nutrition Spread of diseases Injuries Chronically ill people Elderly and children People with physical and mental disabilities Vulnerable groups: Sanitation Medicine Disasters have profound effects on developing countries Dependency Aid with conditions Loss of lives and labor Economic and financial burden however Public Health Actors in Disaster Management WHO UN Governments CBOs International National Community Doctors without borders NGOs Health ministries Terrorism Climate change Individual You Regional Facing issues regarding roles of actors Lack of usable information regarding health Most health related work are conducted in forms of projects War since 2001 5.7 million returning refugees and internally displaced people Highest maternal mortality rate in the world? 1 out of 4 children die before age of five 200.000 handicapped war survivors Tuberculosis major cause of adult mortality and at what stages? = measures taken to prepare for and reduce the effects of disasters Definition of a complex emergency: (UN) = to reduce the risks to people and property, to prevent disasters from happening How in general In Afghanistan Nutrition - food storage USAID project
Health Information System - Yes!
Vaccination, Cholera,TB, Women
ANDMA (Afghanistan Natural Disaster Management Authority)
National Commission for Disaster Management Rebuilding Public Health System:
Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS)
Management tool, tailored to country-specific needs
Defined by MoPH, provided by NGOs & the military
Health Worker Education
new schools for health workers
inclusion of women in the medical system
Sexual violence against men in war time: no scheme for treatment
Building trust after more than 30 years of armed conflict Debt A: Disasters tend to stagnant development Disaster preparedness and response project (2002).
Emergency Mobile Units (EMUs)
The Afghan Red Crescent Society (ARCS) 'Disaster impact - a percentage of the financial damage sustained in relation to the nation’s GDP' Outcome Get to know framework (disaster management cycle)
See public health implications
Understand link to development policy and cooperation
Become acquainted with some main issues in disaster management today Definition of disaster in Ancient Greek: dis (bad) + astros (star)
Event - natural or man-made - that causes
significant physical damage or destruction,
loss of human lives, or
deterioration of health,
and/or drastic change to the environment
creates human needs that cannot be alleviated without assistance (Skolnik: 2007:248). Outline 1. Introduction to public health in disaster management
2. Introduction to case study - Afghanistan
3. Cycle of disaster management - step by step
4. Discussion & further reading = damage control, focus on survival and basic needs Situations in which mortality among the civilian population substantially increases above the population baseline, as a result of direct effects of war or indirectly: increased prevalence of malnutrition and/or transmission of communicable diseases, if the latter result from deliberate political and military policies and strategies. (SALAMA ET AL. 2004 ) Further information and reading Information on humanitarian aid (who can become a volunteer, Humanitarian Hall of Shame, Haiti simulation): http://www.insidedisaster.org. How in complex emergencies Stop violence
Clear definition of roles (OCHA/UNHCR) How in general Early Warning Systems
Responsibility for organization
Coordination authority How in complex emergencies How in general - Afghanistan today Level of response
as local as possible
initial measurement of scope: in $, health risk, injuries, life loss
Coordination: Incident Command System (ICS)
Operations Logistics Planning Financing/Admin
Needs Assessment: medical and public health triage The UNHCR / OCHA
Adequate water - quantity
Mobile health units
Feeding programs How in complex emergencies Priorities:
restore security, prevent violence
clean water & sanitation
prepare for diarrheal diseases
have sufficient food rations
maternal & neonatal healthcare
prepare for spontaneous evacuation
Involvement of military
Focus changing - from short-term emergencies in refugee camps to prolonged emergencies in large geographical areas How in general = returning to the "new normal" state, rebuilding society Public health priority: prevent outbreak & spread of communicable diseases
Deal with psychosocial consequences Heroic Honeymoon Disillusionment Reconstruction Phases of community response to disaster Ongoing community assessment
Come back to the pre-disaster state as soon as possible with less resources than before In complex emergencies - Afghanistan today The Sphere Project. Minimum standards in water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion. The Sphere Handbook 2004: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response.
How could the private sector be included in risk reduction? Discuss with your neighbour: Discuss with your neighbour: What is needed for better action coordination? Discuss with your neighbour: How to deal with the humanitarian impulse (rapid increase and decrease in compassion and media coverage)? WHO (2003): Environmental health in emergencies and disasters: a practical guide.
Edited by B. Wisner and J. Adams. World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emergencies/emergencies2002/en/index.html. Hassmiller, S.B. & Stanley, S.A.R., 2009. Public Health Nursing and the Disaster Management Cycle. Available at: http://www.elsevieradvantage.com/samplechapters/9780323080019/9780323080019.pdf. Hassmiller/Stanley 2009: 523 How in Afghanistan Vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA)
Social structures and power systems
Base line of knowledge
Reduce: governance, discrimination, inequality, access to resources.
Update hazards information systems
Development: poverty reduction. http://de.slideshare.net/katecommsids/bsc-montreux-final International: since 2005 Cluster System http://www.unocha.org/what-we-do/coordination-tools/cluster-coordination