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PhD Thesis Defense - Revised
Transcript of PhD Thesis Defense - Revised
Deborah Perrotta - PhD Researcher
Are they the solution?
João L. Afonso - Supervisor
Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti - Co-supervisor
Less tailpipe emissions?
Less sound pollution?
Can we see the big picture?
Electric Public Transportation
No need of complex infra-structures
A more flexible service...
More specific advantages...
Integrated Simulation Platform
20s at bus stops
Results and Discussion
Higher deceleration rates
28% more energy in breaking episodes
37% less energy to complete the cycle
Bus routes to be loaded automatically based on GPS data
SUMO transformation into a 3D traffic simulator
Develop simulation agents to act as bus drivers
Simulation of passengers boarding and alighting
Integrate more than one instance of Simulink to SUMO
Assessing the Performance of Electric Buses: a Study on the Impacts of Different Routes
When they were actually supposed to reduce by 20%...
Transportation: ONLY sector where emissions increased since 1990!
So what could we do?
Is it enough? What about urban chaos?
Exponential growth on the number of circulating cars
Huge levels of stress!
No, it is not enough...
Electric private vehicles are part of the solution
Electric Public Transportation!
RQ1: How to transform electric buses implementation into a viable solution for cities?
Research & Scientific Gap Identification
In the existing literature:
Electric vehicles simulation are performed based on standard driving cycles
Different route characteristics are expected to play a considerable influence on electric bus performance.
Development of a simulation platform, accounting for the electric bus representation integrated to a traffic simulator
Experiment & Analysis
Validation of the simulation model based on real data
RQ2: Are there ways to simulate electric buses operation in order to extract the most of the batteries limited energy range?
Regenerative braking analysis focuses on process efficiency
Further application of the platform in diverse case studies
Motor Speed (rpm)
Vehicle in Analysis
150kW Peak Power
650N.m Peak Torque
The Battery Pack
15,680 LiFePO4 Cells
via CAN bus (GPS included)
Extremely useful for the validation process
Microscopic traffic simulator
Implements different vehicle types
Allows for the simulation of any route
High Level Architecture (HLA)
IEEE standard architecture
promotes interoperability between computer simulations regardless of their computing platforms
Integrates Simulink and SUMO (Macedo et all 2013)
Fine-tuning of parameters for better accuracy based on operational data from the bus
Performed on parameters of major public concern
Existence of unobservable inputs: Accessories Power Consumption and Number of Passengers
Only their range of
variation is known!
< 5% Variation for all scenarios compared to baseline
< 2% Variation for all scenarios except one (12%)
Redefinition of Baseline
Test 1 was the closest to real data in all scenarios
Three Routes Analysis
Impact of route topographic profile (sharp turns, elevation) and bus stops distribution
Driver's Behavior Analysis
Impact of a driver’s (un)planned actions: acceleration and deceleration episodes
Bus Fleet Analysis
Impact of real traffic on three future BRT routes
Set in Porto
Set in Porto
Set in Boston
All routes were coded in SUMO
Bus stops in every stop for 20s and at red traffic lights
Traffic interaction with other vehicles was disregarded
401&204: 1.5 m/s2
602: 1.7 m/s2
Results and Discussion
Characteristics affecting performance
Higher energy recovery
Small distance between stops
Higher acceleration rates
Not expected but may be related to simulated gear shift
Three Routes Analysis
Silver Line 6
Same map area
Same demand modeling (real OD matrix)
Results and Discussion
During the morning traffic peak, bus s3600:
takes 26% more time
spends 18% more energy
Traffic cannot be disregarded when planning routes!
Calibrated and validated integrated simulation platform for electric buses
May be used for simulating other electric vehicles with minor changes
Allows for the simulation of the electric bus in any route worldwide
Powerful decision tool for bus operators
More accurate accel/decel behavior instead of using fixed values
Batteries model accounting for dynamic behavior
More realistic gear shift model
Inclusion of battery recharging events for route planning
Deborah Perrotta, Alexandre Teixeira, Helena Silva, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, “Electrical Bus Performance Modeling for Urban Environments,” SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains, SAE International, Vol. 5, Issue 1, June 2012, pp.34-45, DOI: 10.4271/2012-01-0200. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-0200
Deborah Perrotta, José Luiz Macedo, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, João L. Afonso, Zafeiris Kokkinogenis, Bernardo Ribeiro, “Driver Attitude and Its Influence on the Energy Waste of Electric Buses”, Book Chapter in “Simulation of Urban Mobility”, Series Title: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Pages: 99-108, Date: 07 Nov 2014, Print ISBN: 978-3-662-45078-9, Online ISBN: 978-3-662-45079-6, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-45079-6_8.
Deborah Perrotta, Alexandre Teixeira, Helena Silva, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, “Electrical Bus Performance Modeling for Urban Environments,” SAE 2012 World Congress & Exhibition, April 24-26, 2012, Cobo Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA, pp.1 12.
Deborah Perrotta, Bernardo Ribeiro, Rosaldo J.F. Rossetti, João L. Afonso, On the Potential of Regenerative Braking of Electric Buses as a Function of Their Itinerary, Elsevier Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 54, 4 October 2012, Pages 1156-1167, ISSN 1877-0428, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.830.
Deborah Perrotta, José Luís Macedo, Rosaldo J.F. Rossetti, Jorge Freire de Sousa, Zafeiris Kokkinogenis, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, Route Planning for Electric Buses: A Case Study in Oporto, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 February 2014, Pages 1004-1014, ISSN 1877-0428, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.135.
Deborah Perrotta, José L. Macedo, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, Zafeiris Kokkinogeni, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, “Driver’s Attitude and its Influence on the Energy Waste of Electric Buses”, 1st SUMO User Conference 2013 (Simulation of Urban Mobility), 15-17 May 2013, Berlin-Adlershof, Germany, pp. 103–107, ISSN 1866-721X.
José Macedo, Guilherme Soares, Zafeiris Kokkinogeni, Deborah Perrotta, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, “A Framework for Electric Bus Powertrain Simulation in Urban Mobility Settings: coupling SUMO with a Matlab/Simulink nanoscopic model ”, 1st SUMO User Conference 2013 (Simulation of Urban Mobility), 15-17 May 2013, Berlin-Adlershof, Germany, pp. 95–102, ISSN 1866-721X.
Macedo, J.; Kokkinogenis, Z.; Soares, G.; Perrotta, D.; Rossetti, R.J.F., "A HLA-based multi-resolution approach to simulating electric vehicles in Simulink and SUMO," Intelligent Transportation Systems - (ITSC), 2013 16th International IEEE Conference on , 6-9 Oct. 2013, The Hague, Netherlands, vol., no., pp.2367,2372, doi: 10.1109/ITSC.2013.6728581.
Deborah Perrotta, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, João L. Afonso, “Analysing the Benefits of Electric Buses Regarding GHG Emissions,” ICEE 2015 - 2nd International Conference on Energy and Environment: Bringing together Engineering and Economics, 18-19 June 2015, Guimarães, Portugal.
How it works...
Higher energy consumption