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PhD Thesis Defense - Revised

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Deborah Perrotta

on 29 September 2015

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Transcript of PhD Thesis Defense - Revised

Assessing the performance of electric buses: a study on the impacts of different routes
Deborah Perrotta - PhD Researcher
Electric Vehicles
Simulation Test-Bed
Future work
Are they the solution?
João L. Afonso - Supervisor
Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti - Co-supervisor

Less tailpipe emissions?
Less sound pollution?

Electric Buses
Can we see the big picture?
Electric Public Transportation
Not really
Door-to-door transportation
No need of complex infra-structures
A more flexible service...
More specific advantages...
Integrated Simulation Platform
Vehicle Dynamics
Aliados region
Traffic lights
20s at bus stops
Other vehicles
Results and Discussion
Higher deceleration rates
28% more energy in breaking episodes
37% less energy to complete the cycle
Bus routes to be loaded automatically based on GPS data
SUMO transformation into a 3D traffic simulator
Develop simulation agents to act as bus drivers
Simulation of passengers boarding and alighting
Integrate more than one instance of Simulink to SUMO
Assessing the Performance of Electric Buses: a Study on the Impacts of Different Routes
Thank you!
Deborah Perrotta
When they were actually supposed to reduce by 20%...
Transportation: ONLY sector where emissions increased since 1990!
So what could we do?
Is it enough? What about urban chaos?
Exponential growth on the number of circulating cars

Huge levels of stress!
No, it is not enough...
Electric private vehicles are part of the solution
Electric Public Transportation!
Research Questions
RQ1: How to transform electric buses implementation into a viable solution for cities?
Research & Scientific Gap Identification
In the existing literature:
Electric vehicles simulation are performed based on standard driving cycles
Different route characteristics are expected to play a considerable influence on electric bus performance.

Development of a simulation platform, accounting for the electric bus representation integrated to a traffic simulator

Experiment & Analysis
Validation of the simulation model based on real data
Research Approach
RQ2: Are there ways to simulate electric buses operation in order to extract the most of the batteries limited energy range?

Regenerative braking analysis focuses on process efficiency
Further application of the platform in diverse case studies
Simulation Model
Vehicle Dynamics
Regenerative Braking
Power (kW)
Torque (N.m)
Motor Speed (rpm)
Current (A)
Voltage (V)
Energy (kWh)
Traffic/ Route
Energy (kWh)
Vehicle in Analysis
150kW Peak Power
650N.m Peak Torque
Regenerative Braking
The Motor
The Battery Pack
15,680 LiFePO4 Cells
150kWh Energy
Data collection
via CAN bus (GPS included)
Extremely useful for the validation process
Microscopic traffic simulator
Open source
Implements different vehicle types
Allows for the simulation of any route

High Level Architecture (HLA)
IEEE standard architecture
promotes interoperability between computer simulations regardless of their computing platforms
Integrates Simulink and SUMO (Macedo et all 2013)

CaetanoBus EL2500
Validation Process
Fine-tuning of parameters for better accuracy based on operational data from the bus
Validation Results
Performed on parameters of major public concern
Theoretical Range
Real data
Motoring mode
Generator mode



Model calibrated!
SOC (state-of-charge)
Sensitivity Analysis
Existence of unobservable inputs: Accessories Power Consumption and Number of Passengers
Only their range of
variation is known!
Input Variable
Power Steering
Air Compressor
< 5% Variation for all scenarios compared to baseline
Energy Consumption
< 2% Variation for all scenarios except one (12%)
Redefinition of Baseline
June 12th
June 16th
July 8th
July 7th
Test 1 was the closest to real data in all scenarios
Case Studies
Three Routes Analysis
Impact of route topographic profile (sharp turns, elevation) and bus stops distribution
Driver's Behavior Analysis
Impact of a driver’s (un)planned actions: acceleration and deceleration episodes
Bus Fleet Analysis
Impact of real traffic on three future BRT routes
Set in Porto
Set in Porto
Set in Boston
Simulation set-up
All routes were coded in SUMO
Bus stops in every stop for 20s and at red traffic lights
Traffic interaction with other vehicles was disregarded
Acceleration/Deceleration rates:
401&204: 1.5 m/s2
602: 1.7 m/s2

Results and Discussion
Characteristics affecting performance
Descending road
Higher energy recovery
Ascending road
Small distance between stops
Higher acceleration rates
Not expected but may be related to simulated gear shift
Three Routes Analysis
Driver's Behavior
Simulation Test-Bed
3 routes
Diamond Ring
Urban Ring
Silver Line 6
BRT Implementation
Same map area
Same demand modeling (real OD matrix)
BRT Literature
Results and Discussion
Diamond Ring
During the morning traffic peak, bus s3600:
takes 26% more time
spends 18% more energy
Traffic cannot be disregarded when planning routes!
Key Contributions
Calibrated and validated integrated simulation platform for electric buses
May be used for simulating other electric vehicles with minor changes
Allows for the simulation of the electric bus in any route worldwide
Powerful decision tool for bus operators
Further Development
More accurate accel/decel behavior instead of using fixed values
Batteries model accounting for dynamic behavior
More realistic gear shift model
Inclusion of battery recharging events for route planning

Publications (1/3)
Deborah Perrotta, Alexandre Teixeira, Helena Silva, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, “Electrical Bus Performance Modeling for Urban Environments,” SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains, SAE International, Vol. 5, Issue 1, June 2012, pp.34-45, DOI: 10.4271/2012-01-0200. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-0200

Deborah Perrotta, José Luiz Macedo, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, João L. Afonso, Zafeiris Kokkinogenis, Bernardo Ribeiro, “Driver Attitude and Its Influence on the Energy Waste of Electric Buses”, Book Chapter in “Simulation of Urban Mobility”, Series Title: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Pages: 99-108, Date: 07 Nov 2014, Print ISBN: 978-3-662-45078-9, Online ISBN: 978-3-662-45079-6, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-45079-6_8.

Book Chapter
Publications (2/3)
SAE 2012
Deborah Perrotta, Alexandre Teixeira, Helena Silva, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, “Electrical Bus Performance Modeling for Urban Environments,” SAE 2012 World Congress & Exhibition, April 24-26, 2012, Cobo Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA, pp.1 12.
EWGT 2012
Deborah Perrotta, Bernardo Ribeiro, Rosaldo J.F. Rossetti, João L. Afonso, On the Potential of Regenerative Braking of Electric Buses as a Function of Their Itinerary, Elsevier Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 54, 4 October 2012, Pages 1156-1167, ISSN 1877-0428, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.830.
EWGT 2013
Deborah Perrotta, José Luís Macedo, Rosaldo J.F. Rossetti, Jorge Freire de Sousa, Zafeiris Kokkinogenis, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, Route Planning for Electric Buses: A Case Study in Oporto, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 February 2014, Pages 1004-1014, ISSN 1877-0428, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.135.
Publications (3/3)
SUMO 2013
Deborah Perrotta, José L. Macedo, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, Zafeiris Kokkinogeni, Bernardo Ribeiro, João L. Afonso, “Driver’s Attitude and its Influence on the Energy Waste of Electric Buses”, 1st SUMO User Conference 2013 (Simulation of Urban Mobility), 15-17 May 2013, Berlin-Adlershof, Germany, pp. 103–107, ISSN 1866-721X.
José Macedo, Guilherme Soares, Zafeiris Kokkinogeni, Deborah Perrotta, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, “A Framework for Electric Bus Powertrain Simulation in Urban Mobility Settings: coupling SUMO with a Matlab/Simulink nanoscopic model ”, 1st SUMO User Conference 2013 (Simulation of Urban Mobility), 15-17 May 2013, Berlin-Adlershof, Germany, pp. 95–102, ISSN 1866-721X.
ITSC 2013
Macedo, J.; Kokkinogenis, Z.; Soares, G.; Perrotta, D.; Rossetti, R.J.F., "A HLA-based multi-resolution approach to simulating electric vehicles in Simulink and SUMO," Intelligent Transportation Systems - (ITSC), 2013 16th International IEEE Conference on , 6-9 Oct. 2013, The Hague, Netherlands, vol., no., pp.2367,2372, doi: 10.1109/ITSC.2013.6728581.
ICEE 2015
Deborah Perrotta, Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti, João L. Afonso, “Analysing the Benefits of Electric Buses Regarding GHG Emissions,” ICEE 2015 - 2nd International Conference on Energy and Environment: Bringing together Engineering and Economics, 18-19 June 2015, Guimarães, Portugal.

How it works...
Higher energy consumption
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