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Chapter 12 Reconstruction and Its Effects

This lecture will examine the repercussions of the Civil War, its effects on the American people, and the agreements and
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James Eskew

on 8 April 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 12 Reconstruction and Its Effects

America has been split apart by three major wars; in the 1770's, the American Revolution; in the 1970's, the Vietnam War; between these two wars, the Civil War. Each war dramatically changed the generation that engaged in the battles as well as the generations that followed. This lecture will examine the repercussions of the Civil War, its effects on the American people, and the agreements and disagreements within the nation over the meaning of the word "Reconstruction." On April 14, 1865, as President Lincoln watched a performance of "American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington D.C., he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor from Maryland obsessed with avenging the Confederate defeat. April 9, 1865, Robert E. Lee Surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox The era of Reconstruction raised three important questions about the United States that have yet to be fully answered. Can the United States be truly united?
Can black and white Americans coexist peacefully and equally with one another?
Who runs this country anyway?
Car Schurz, a Wisconsin Republican, was a supporter of Abraham Lincoln who toured the South after the war writing a report. an abolitionist
against the institution of slavery
hated the South and Southerners Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Appomattox Court House Chapter 2 Names and Terms What were the spoils of the Civil War?
What had the South suffered as a result of the Civil War? Physically
Legally
Emotionally Physically:
The Atlantic Coast cities were in ruin
Transportation and communication systems were destroyed
Monetary and economic system destroyed
Greatest property loss; 3.5-4 million slaves


Legally:
11 States out of the Union
Must be reannexed
How to do it
Emotionally:
The real tragedy was state of mind
The South was condemed by former friends
Some 80,000 former slaves fought with Union against the South

Who runs this country? Radical Republicans believed Lincoln was too soft on the South
Proclaimation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Wade-Davis Bill
Theories of Reconstruction Presidential Theory
Southern Theory
Conquered Provinces Theory
"Forfeited Rights" Theory
Presidential Theory: Not Reconstuction but "Restoration"
The President has full say so over Reconstruction
President Johnson promised to uses pardoning power to appoint governers sympathetic to the Southern cause
Southern Theory: The results of the war proved sucession could not take place
The South never left the Union
No Constitutional question
Everything should revert to pre-war status
Conquered Provinces Theory: Thaddeus Stevens - Pennsylvannia Representative
Leading abolitionist and Radical Republician
Argued the South had shattered the Constitution
The South could be reconstructed anyway they chose
Forfeited Rights Theory: This theory ultimately would govern Reconstruction
Declared sucession null and void
Southern governments rebelled therefore forfeiting their rights
Gained support of Radicals
Became the theory that underlay the Reconstruction Act of 1867


Who were the Radical Republicians? Windell Phillips (1811-1884),Abolitionist, labor reformer, and orator. He was a major force in the larger political struggles over slavery that led to the civil war. Born into a wealthy and influential New England family, Phillips left his law practice to use his oratorical skills for social reforms, including abolition, prohibition, and women's suffrage. Not a single answer to this question
Extremists like Thaddeus Stevens
Charles Sumner was caned on the floor of the Congress by an irate South Carolinian
Wendell Phillips was a leading abolitionist
Men of extreme views
Defied Lincoln again and again
Defied Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson
Reconstruction
Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens
Wade-Davis Bill
Freedmen's Bureau
black codes
Fourtheenth Amendment
Fifthteenth Amendment
Scalawag
carpetbagger
Hiram Revels
sharecropping
tenant farming
Ku Klux Klan
Panic of 1873
redemption
Rutherford B. Hayes
Samuel J. Tilden
home rule
Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner Wendell Phillips A Radical Republican was any member of Congress committed to destroying the institution of slavery and committed to some kind of civil rights for African-Americans. The Radicals seized power, in part, because of growing hostility toward President Johnson and some of his actions in the early months of 1866 when Johnson vetoed two bills that Congress had passed. Freedman's Bureau Bill
Civil Rights Act of 1866
The Radicals interpreted the President's vetoes as evidence that he himself, personally, was a racist
stepped up their demands for control over Reconstruction.
Joint Committee of Fifteen
Forfeited Rights theory was applied to the South
In 1867, Congress placed Southern states under a military dictatorship.
government manned by;
carpetbaggers - outsiders
scalawags - turncoat Southern whites
their ignorant Negro allies, once slaves, now freedmen
Democratic Party of the South won local elections and took control

What happened to the members of the Confederate army? Captain Henry Wirtz, the commandant of Andersonville prison
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy BIRTH OF A NATION (1915)) starring Lillian Gish. Directed by D.W. Griffith. The film was harshly condemned for its glorification of the Ku Klux Klan and pro-southern view of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Based on the novel The Clansman by Thomas Dixon. This Civil War Reconstruction epic became a landmark in American filmmaking, both for its artistic merits and for its unprecedented use of such innovative techniques as flashbacks, fade-outs, and close-ups. "Renegade Negro" in the hands of the Klan. The Birth of a Nation, 1915.
Source: Museum of Modern Art, Film Stills Archive. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 South was divided into five military districts
Union forces were to oversee registration of voters & election of new state governments
only 20,000 troops
not to oversee Reconstruction but to provide a defensive force against Native Americans
By 1868, military rule ended in all Southern states except for Virginia, Texas, and Mississippi.
In those states, military occupation ended by 1869 or 1870. What about Black Reconstruction? White voters dramatically outnumbered black voters in Georgia, Virginia, Texas, and in North Carolina

Any African-American in any political office stirred the hatred, the anger, of many white Southerners A Northern view about the follies of Black Reconstruction in southern state legislatures revealed that prejudice against African-American participation in politics was not restricted to white southerners.
source: www.harpweek.com

Many Southerners were hardly inclined to accept any military occupation, any black rule, any influence by outsiders, any Reconstruction at all.... Southerners were determined not to accept any change in the social or economic status of the freed slaves The "Lost Cause" Meant the restoration of the virtues, the economy, and, particularly, the social system of the Old South.
"Can the United States, should the United States, truly be united?
Can black and white, should black and white, live together in equality and harmony?" Conclusion: The keynote of Southerners and their response to Northern activity
the theme of restoration
the theme of redeeming the "Lost Cause."
There gradually evolved a kind of different South by the end of the nineteenth century
a "New South" What about the Confederate civil leaders? A handful were arrested
None ever brought to trial
President of the Confederacy? prison for two years and was released
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