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Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology

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by

Scott Throneberry

on 24 August 2016

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Transcript of Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology

The Chambers
Two Ventricles - Right and Left
Left Atrium and Ventricle
Two Atria - Right and Left
Two Sided Pump
Right Atrium and Ventricle
Seperation
Interatrial Septum
Interventricular Septum
Coronary Sulcus
Interventricular Grooves
Location, Size, and Shape
Posterior is the thoracic spine; Anterior is the sternum
Found in the MEDIASTINUM
2/3 of heart's mass is Left of midline
Base at level of third rib; Apex just above diaphragm
Layers of the Heart
Pericardium (pericardial sac)
Parietal
Visceral
Considered part of the epicardium
Filled with 10-20cc
Heart Wall
Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium
Heart Valves
Atrioventricular Valves
Tricuspid Valve
Mitral Valve
Chordae tendinaea
LMRT
Semilunar Valves
Pulmonic
Aortic
Vessels
Ateries
away from heart
Tunica initima, media, and adventitia
Veins
toward the hear
contain valves
Capillaries
single cell thick
respond to pH changes
Coronary Vessels
Right and Left
LCA = LAD, Circumflex, and marginal
RCA = Posterior Descending
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
A drop of blood through the system
The Cardiac Cycle
Systole and Diastole (often only referred in venticles)
70% passing filling of ventricle
30% active by atrial kick
Cardiac Cycle = 0.8 seconds (Systole 0.28 sec; Diastole 0.52 sec)
Ventricular Diastole = Coronary Perfusion and Passive filling
The Dynamic Blood Pressure
Stroke Volume
Blood pumped out in single contraction
Approx. 70cc per beat
Ejection Fraction 55-70%
End diastolic volume = 120cc
Cardiac Output
CO = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
4900mL = 70mL x 70bpm
5600mL = 70mL x 80bpm
Factors:
Preload (end diastolic pressure)
Afterload - pressure that the ventricle pushes against
Frank Starling's Law - "rubber band theory"
PVR or SVR - same thing
BP = Cardiac Output x PVR
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Nervous System
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
"Fight or Flight"
Alpha and Beta Adrenergic Receptors
Cholinergic Receptors
Acetylcholine
Alpha
Beta 1
Beta 2
Vessels
Heart
Lungs
constriction
Increased:
Heart Rate
Inotropy
Bronchial Dilation
Full transcript