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European Union politics presentation
Transcript of European Union politics presentation
Foreign and economic policy on the world stage. Institutionalism/Europeanisation (Wong) Constructivism - Negative view - focus on unitary states and anarchy in explaining the relative failure of the CFSP - Classical realism provides greater help than Neo-classical realism (Walt) - The cooperative Britain and France relationship - foreign policy VERSUS Assertion of national sovereignty - Germany, Italy, Spain and Poland Moravcsik’s - ‘liberal intergovernmentalism’ Gegout - historical institutionalism - Gegout - to explain CFSP reference to history and functioning of institutions is essential
- Carlsnaes - contextualisation over simple bargaining models to enhance global impact as a power
- Problem = contextualisation perspectives are highly divergent Limits and Positive Contributions - Exception = Kagan, 'Americans from Mars' and 'Europeans from Venus' Conclusions: what kind of power? 1. To understand the evolving nature of the EU's power we must make reference to the international system as a whole. US relations Non-EU European countries China and the Triad? Power relations within a landscape of interdependence Realism Classical Realism Neo-Classical Realism Liberalism Alternative approaches Norway
-Military and CFSP Greater dialogue - Human Rights progress
China Textile wars 2005 - Recent setbacks - eg. United Nations (IPSA 2012 Madrid Conference)
History of support
Reduction in annual meetings? - Power of emerging powers - comparison - Theories - EU economic and foreign policy institutions - The EU and third parties Structure of the presentation How is power defined and what expands and limits it? - Limits and positive contributions globally - Conclusions Turkey
-Process of accession
-Privileged Partnership Functionalism (Lavenex) US-EU-CHINA
TRIAD? G3? - International impact of the EU based on external effects of "external governance". - EU = an ever more powerful point of reference/model in international relations, both for its member states and neighbours. - EU integration, the drawing together of states translates into power. - Goes further than institutionalism. - Shared understandings of what constitutes Europe’s role and interest in the world = giving meaning to the material position of the EU. (Bretherton and Vogler) - Linklater - EU as a civilising force in international relations
- Cooper = A commitment to multilaterism and a more of the traditional kind of hard, or military power. - Structural realism and EU foreign policy incompatible (Kissack). - States as "influence maximisers" - Neorealism/Structural Realism (Waltz) - Renewed hope for dialogue with EU foreign policy -Why might Neo-classical realism allow for greater dialogue with EU foreign policy? - Best suited to solve the domestic versus supranational paradox?
- Thus allow EU greater impact on the global stage - ENHANCED COOPERATION The EU a liberal entity - Diverse opinions on the utility of liberal values? 1. Transformational and socialising effect on the prospects for common action (Vanhoonacker).
2. EU’s liberal values constrained by the logic of the international system, and subject to the glacier-like progress of historical change (Howorth, Mayall). 4. It is a major economic player, with considerable diplomatic sway and minimal military influence. 5. The EU is more shaped by its external relationships, than it shapes external parties. 6. The tension between domestic and supranational pressures hinders the EU as a power.
3. It remains a civilian power in the international system. 8. Defining the EU as a power depends on comparison with other powers. The EU as an Economic superpower Foreign and Security policy:
The EU on the world stage: speaking with one voice? - world 1st economy
- 20% world's exports/imports Facts: Principles: - economic liberalism
- international cooperation
+ protectionism Problems: Although unified under the €,
- interdependence with other continents Aims: - to safeguard common values and,
- to project peace and security into it's neighbourhood and to the rest of the world. Means: - unanimity
- High Representative Problems: - no internal cohesion (e.g. Iraq, Israel)
- pressure of the UN
- dependence to US To what extent is the EU powerful on the global stage? "Should it be a mid-level career bureaucrat, as the UK and others appear to want? Or should it be a mover and a shaker? This article seeks to make the case for the EU achieving greatness. Not greatness in any traditional, great power sense. The objective is not the projection of power, but the achievement of influence and impact in an increasingly turbulent and rapidly changing world”- Jolyon Howorth What the EU is not The EU is not a world power
No sovereignty in the Westphalian sense and no equal pillar to superpowers such as the US
Ambitions are constrained by on-going tensions between the Union itself and its member states
No seats in any major international organizations except the WTO
No common military policy: small mainland with lots of states
Demographic decline, resource penury, energy dependency, colonial baggage Positive contributions on global stage The EU is an economic force
Conscious political purpose and preferences
The EU has paved the way of multilateral institutionalism- how it regulates relations between states
Mixed theories on whether “we’ve seen it all before” or globalized world is a very new and different from anything in the past
Restraint on military interventions
Historical turning point: new set of more relevant questions - Economic, military and political power - internal and external relationships. 2. The EU brand is not for export - emulation only by choice. 7. The EU should seek a world of interdependence. Questions for Discussion: - Is the EU a Global Power?
-Do you think that emerging powers have more say in international institutions than the EU?
-To what degree is it necessary for the EU to develop coherent hard military power capabilities?