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Transcript of Post-Modernism
First woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court 1982
Sally Ride Becomes the First American Woman in Space 1983. Most women in the Post Modernism Era continued their desire for equality, as women from the previous Era; Modernism strived for as well. It's books like The Feminine Mystique that empowered women to demand equality and address the issue of sexism. Emmett Till murdered 1955
Rosa Parks forgives to give up seat on the bus 1955
Martin Luther King Jr. Makes His "I Have a Dream" Speech 1963
Civil Rights Act Passes in U.S. 1964
Malcolm X Assassinated 1965
Selma to Montgomery Marches 1965
Black Panther Party Established 1966
Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated 1968 |Civil Rights| The Civil Rights Era brought forth many literature pieces that spoke upon equality between ethnicities. A few African Americans used literature as a way to rally support for the movement. Also many pieces were based upon the cruel and unusual treatment African Americans were forced to live with on a daily basis. To Kill A Mocking Bird for example told the story of a wrongly accused colored man, which connected to people emotionally in the real world therefore attributing to the Civil Rights Movement. With literature pieces such as I Know Why The Cage Bird Sings becoming a must read toward the end of the Civil Right Era ,show the continued support of the advancement of the African American society even after such tragedies like the Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. when hope for equality was seemingly lost. |Advancements in Technology| Colored TV introduced 1951,
Sputnik 1 in 1957
NASA Founded 1958
First Televised Presidential Debates 1960
Neil Armstrong is first man on the Moon 1969
Use of the Internet Grows Exponentially 1993
Scientists Clone Sheep 1997 Technology contributed to literature in that Americans were able to express themselves online through the use of the internet, with such methods including blogging and columns. Writers were able to get inspiration from what they were able see via television, people wrote about what was televised which in 1960 was the Presidential Debates. |War and Protest| Korean War Begins 1950
Vietnam war 1956-1975
Iran Hostage crisis 1979, Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989 Official End of the Cold War 1992
Riots in Los Angeles after the Rodney King Verdict 1992 In the past when the U.S. was involved in war Americans either expressed themselves through their writing or in a oral protest. Literature pieces were embedded with anger and desires of peace. Most pieces were very black and white on positions to whether they agreed or disagreed upon the issues of war or events such as the Rodney King Trial and Berlin Wall. |Scandals| Senator Joseph McCarthy Begins Communist Witch Hunt 1950
JFK Assassinated 1963
Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated 1968
Kent State Shootings 1970
Watergate burglary 1972
U.S. President Nixon Resigns 1974
World Trade Center Bombed 1993
U.S. President Clinton Impeached 1998
Terrorists attack and Fall Of the World Trade Center 2001 Many pieces that wanted instant recognition reflected what was popular in the media. Whether it was writing sentimental pieces for unfortunate losses like the Kennedy's or expressing a majority opinion about scandals like the Watergate Burglary or President Clinton getting impeached. Scientific Context: •New Technology: During WWII, two pieces of technology that changed warfare were the radar and bombsights
radar - radio detecting and ranging--many saw this piece of technology as the reason we won the war
bombsight - precise and accurate bomb runs; allowed aviators to fly higher to safety
After effects into post-modernism: led to many factors in which this technology was used for espionage during the Cold War •Scientific influence: Space was also a large factor--Neil Armstrong traveled to tthe moon although he was after Russia, Sputnik 1 launched, and the Skylab Workshop launched in space and influenced the sci-fi genre with more notions both in history and new science. Heroin and other drugs were mass produced which skyrocketed in sales during this time, influencing drugs and sex themed books.
It was a large break from traditional science, as postmodernism was a time where many people broke away from truths and reality, believing that it was nonexistent.
Other science that occurred during the post-modern era: Internet was created, cloning of a mammal, working on cures for diseases, more research was done on DNA, H-bomb, etc. Artistic context: 1. Postmodernism art: rebellion against realism and elite (modern)
a.Modernism art = abstract and exploration
i.Based to fit the artists’ wants and desires
2. Postmodern art – seen to replace modern art 3. A way of art that was used to “shock” the audience
a.Instead of assuring the artists’ desires or the meaning of the art, the point of postmodern art was the reaction and feeling that it struck within the audience
i.Ex: cows being spray painted, toilets on display, and one of the most vulgar, when a pathologist sawed a human head in half and turned them to face each other in order to resemble a kiss
1.Dehumanizing experiences meant more success.
b.Highly based on the gratification of the audience and what the artists want his/her audience to feel in order to satisfy the public 4.Other Postmodern Art Movements (though not all):
a.1960s – conceptual art, minimalism, op art, pop art, performance art,
b.1970s – body art, photorealism, video art, funk art
c.1980s – graffiti, live art, neo-pop, sound art, neo-expressionism
d.1990s – digital art, information art, internet art, new media art
e.2000s – street art, virtual art, videogame art, stuckism
a.As Postmodernism = no truth or pattern that must be followed
i.Architecture, instead of following a pattern, exposes contradictions
b.Postmodern architectures likes to put man around a variety of facades;
i - theme parks are decorated in different eras, and greenery is brought inside to combine both nature and the “modern” world Relationship to Adjoining Periods: 1. Postmodernism is the latest literary period in the United States and has yet to end
2. Every day is a new day that only brings more and more to the postmodernism period—it’s like science and history, things are constantly changing.
3. Before Post-modernism, however, was modernism, an era in which everything was based on science and truth. 4.Modernism vs. Post-modernism
a.Modernism – about great minds and intellectual framework
i.Everything was looked to man—understanding of human identity to embrace scientific rationality and truth, using means of abstract and experimentation to find it
b.Reaction/relationship – Postmodernism developed from modernism as an outbreak when people decided that truths didn’t stem from the human understanding or scientific knowledge and that by basing everything on “reality” meant that it was being created by those who held a power over everyone else.
i.Departure from modernism—distrust to ideologies and “truth” Characteristics of Works 1. Based on irrational thought process and indeterminate state of knowledge, as a reaction to modernism
2. Approach was based on subjectivity
3. Lacked analytical features, instead based on belief rather than facts
4. Characters were written for the audience to identify with (like an anti-hero, in which people made mistakes)
5. Also includes:
b.Breakdown between high and low cultural forms – intention was to make it more understandable for the mass
c.Irony/parody – used to give a more playful attitude instead of directly rejecting reality
d.Contradiction (using things out of place instead of using the truth) – culture often used styles/fashions/themes from past out of original context
e.Ambiguity – reality was a state in which they didn’t believe; questions were dominant, especially of narratives
f.Usage of pop culture Representative Authors & Literary Works of the Period A few famous authors and books within the Post Modernism Era 1951 Catcher In The Rye- J.D. Salinger
1952 Invisible Man- Ralph Ellison
1960 To Kill A Mockingbird- Harper Lee
1962 Catch 22- Joseph Heller
1963 The Feminine Mystique Betty Friedan
1967 The Confessions of Nat Turner-William Styron
1969 I Know Why The Cage Bird Sings- Maya Angelou
1978 Songs Of Solomon -Toni Morrison
1982 The Color Purple- Alice Walker
1984 The House On Mango Street- Sandra Cisneros
1986 The Dark Knight Returns- Frank Miller
1990 Iron John: A Book About Men - Robert Bly Works Cited "Ethics and the Environment: The Spotted Owl Controversy." Ethics and
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<www.wangmichelle.com>. H-Bomb During the Cold War, the hydrogen bomb was created by the U.S., following the success of the atomic bomb
Soviet Union soon after followed in their footsteps with nuclear technology
With the start of nuclear technology during WWII, it expanded post-war and post-modernism