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Ancient Rome Culture
Transcript of Ancient Rome Culture
Togas fell out of style rather early. The toga became inconvenient, and people felt the cold when they wore it. The Romans switched to more comfortable tunics, which looked like long tee-shirts. Tunics were made of cool linen, for summer wear, and warm wool, for winter wear. Rome's Men Fashion Roman Women: Women enjoyed gazing at themselves in mirrors of highly polished metal (not glass). The ancient Roman women loved ornate necklaces, pins, earrings, bracelets and friendship rings. Pearls were favorites. Women often dyed their hair, usually golden-red. They used false hairpieces to make their hair thicker or longer. Sometimes, Roman women wore their hair up, in carefully arranged styles, held with jeweled hairpins. Rome's Women Fashion Most wealthy people in Rome earned their money from agriculture because they owned huge farms worked on by Roman slaves. The landowners would grow rich from this or other Romans would grow rich through businesses. The wealthy would live in 1-2 story houses or they would also own villas. The wealthy women would supervise the slaves who took care of the home and kids.
Rich vs. Poor Slavery Gladiators In the early years of Rome, there were no written laws. In each case, judges decided what the law was. Decisions were based on customs and traditions. In the 400s B.C. the Romans developed a law code called the Twelve Tables. It set down laws relating to family relations, property, inheritance, and other important issues. The Twelve Tables In Roman towns, art filled public buildings and the homes of the wealthy. Colorful mosaics brightened up floors. A mosaic is a design formed with small tiles of glass, stone, or pottery. Public buildings, and the homes of the wealthy boasted colorful painted murals on the walls and ceilings. These showed beautiful landscapes, events from mythology and history, and scenes from daily life. Roman Art Roman women enjoyed more freedom than Greek women. Unlike moat Greek women, Roman women could own personal property. Also unlike many Greek women, Roman women took an active role in social life. They went to parties, enjoyed the theater, and participated in religious rituals. But, women still could not vote or hold public office. The most important role of a Roman women was to bear a children and raise them to follow traditions. The ideal women was a faithful wife and mother, devoted to her family. Role of Roman Women Roman Language Romulus and Remus (continued) Sure enough, first they were found by a she-wolf. Then a shepherd and his wife adopted the boys. As the twins grew older, they decided they did not want to take care of sheep. They wanted to be kings. They decided to build a city on the shores of the Tiber. They both wanted to be the only king. They quarreled and in a fit of rage, Romulus ended up killing his brother, and became king. Sometimes they wore it down, curled in ringlets.
Women's street shoes were made of leather, like a man's. In the house, most Romans wore sandals. Women's sandals were brightly colored. Some were even decorated with pearls. Roman girls wore a simple tunic with a belt at the waist. When they went outside, they wore a second tunic that reached their feet Rome's Women Fashion (continued) Rome's Women Fashion Rings were the only jewelry worn by Roman citizen men, and good manners meant only one ring. Of course, some men did not follow "good taste", and wore as many as sixteen rings. Hairstyles and beards varied with the times. In early Roman times, men wore long hair and full beards. For a while, they were clean-shaven with short hair. Roman Boys: Boys wore a tunic down to their knees. It was white, with a crimson border. Once a boy became a man, he would put aside his childish clothes, and wore an all-white tunic. Rome's Men Fashion (continued) On the other side, life was different for the poor or common Romans. They lived in cramped apartments that had no running water that were badly built. Crime, fire and disease were dangers when being poor. Most of the poor worked a variety of jobs, some ran stores, taverns, or restaurants. Many others were tenant farmers or worked as day laborers. Rich vs. Poor (continued) The Romans worshipped hundreds of gods. Many were adapted from the Greeks, or the Etruscans. Others came from Latin tradition Some even came from people the Romans conquered. Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were the most important Roman Gods. In Greek mythology, they were known as Zeus, Hera, and Athena. Jupiter was the king of the Roman Gods and he ruled the sky and thunder. Juno was the wife of Jupiter and was the goddess of marriage and the family. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter and was the goddess of wisdom and war. Roman Gods and Goddesses Slavery was very common in ancient Rome. As Rome grew richer and more powerful, Romans bought or captured increasing numbers in slaves. As many as 40 percent of people in Rome in the year 1 B.C. may have been slaves. For most of Roman history, slaves had no rights. They were bought and sold as property. They could be beaten or killed by their masters for any reason. Children born to slaves were also slaves. Many slaves worked in mines or on large farms. These slaves often died quickly due to brutal treatment. Slaves who served loyally though, could be freed as a reward. They could also save up to buy their freedom. Freed slaves could become citizens and had the right to vote. Living Conditions for Slaves Other slaves led easier lives. Some worked in homes of their wealthy masters.They lived like typical poor Romans, or even better, performing housework for their masters. Some educated slaves worked as secretaries or teachers. These slaves were usually Greeks. Although they lived in much better conditions than other slaves, they could still be treated very cruelly. Living Conditions for Slaves (continued) Some slaves fought back against their masters. One famous fighter was Spartacus who led an army of rebel slaves in the 70s B.C. They fought the Roman army and threatened to capture Rome before the Romans defeated them. Slaves fighting back The Romans enjoyed fights between gladiators, or men who fought one another as part of a public entertainment. They often fought to the death. Fights were held in the arenas such as the Colosseum in Rome. Gladiatorial matches were first held in southern Italy before Rome existed. Originally, these games were staged at funerals. The death of a gladiator was meant as sacrifice to the spirit of the person whose death was being mourned. Later, the games lost this connection with funerals and were held just to entertain. The word "gladiator" means swordsmen in Latin, though gladiators used a variety of weapons. Gladiators were usually slaves or criminals and were trained to both fight and entertain a crowd. Skilled or lucky gladiators who survived many matches could win their freedom. They could even become celebrities. Gladiators (continued) Sometimes, huge battles between teams of gladiators were staged. Special arenas were flooded so that gladiators could fight one another on boats, recreating famous naval battles from history. Exotic animals like lions and elephants were brought to Rome. Special fighters, condemned criminals, and prisoners of war were made to fight these wild animals. Emperors or wealthy citizens paid for these outrageous games. Expensive events showed off the wealth and power of the person who sponsored them. Gladiators (continued) The Romans also built statues of their gods, great heroes, and important people. They stood in markets, temples, and other public places. Many were copies of Greek originals. But the Romans also developed their own style. Greek sculptors usually idealized their subjects, or made them look like ideal people. Greek sculptures usually show young and beautiful people. In contrast, earlier Roman sculptors usually showed their subjects as they were in real life. Skillful Roman artisans used various materials to make beautiful objects. They crafted vases and jars of blue glass and mirrors of polished silver. Romans wore jewelry made or silver, gold, and gems Roman Art (continued) Rome was a patriarchal society which means men ruled their family. The oldest man in a Roman family was called the paterfamilias, or head of the household. He owned all the family's property. The father had unlimited power over his wife, children, slaves, and underage siblings. He could even sell his children into slavery, or kill them if he chose to. Role of Roman Men Using concrete, workers built large structures covered with domes. The largest dome covered the Pantheon. Roman engineers and soldiers also built large bridges, supported by rounded arches. Such arches allowed for longer bridge spans. A rounded arch is the most typical feature of Roman architecture. Roman Architecture (continued) Roman soldiers, colonists, and merchants took their language to many parts of Europe. Latin, the Roman language, became the spoken language across much of the western part of the empire. Latin was the language of education in Europe for many centuries. Scientists still use it to name plants and animals. Latin also served as the language of the Roman Catholic Church. Carpe Diem: Seize the Day
Circa: About, around
Cavaet Emptor: Buyer Beware
De Facto: In reality