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East Asian Tradition

Dates, authors, periods, major schools
by

Kate Page-Lippsmeyer

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of East Asian Tradition

710-784
710-794
794-1185
1185 - 1333
1392 - 1573
Ancient Period (712 - 1185)
Medieval Period (1185-1600)
Early Modern (1600-1868)
Nara Period
Heian Period
Tempyo Period
552-710
Asuka Period
300 - 710 CE
Yamato
300 - 600 CE
Kofun Period
300 BCE - 300 CE
Yayoi Period
8000 - 300 BCE
Jomon Period
700 CE
800 CE
900 CE
1000 CE
1200 CE
1100 CE
1300 CE
1400 CE
1500 CE
1600 CE
1336 - 1392
Yoshino/
Nambokucho
Period
Momoyama /
Auzchi-Momoyama
Period
700 CE
600 CE
500 CE
400 CE
300 CE
200 CE
100 CE
0 CE
100 BCE
200 BCE
300 BCE
1600 - 1867 Edo / Tokugawa
1675 - 1725 Genroku
1600 CE
1700 CE
1800 CE
Muromachi Period
1573 - 1598
named after relocation of capital to Asuka (modern Nara prefecutre)
Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) 712 CE
Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan) 720 CE
Man'yoshu (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) 759 CE
Ise Monogatari (Tales of Ise) 10th Century
Kokinshu (Kokin Wakashu) 905/920 CE
Genji Emaki
Tale of Genji (Genji Monogatari) 1000 CE
Kagero Nikki (Gossamer Diary) (ca. 985)
Sarashina Diary (ca.1025)
1180-1185 Genpei War
Tale of the Heike (13th / 14th Century)
Yoshida Kenko, Essays in Idleness 1330-32 CE
Kamakura Period
Zeami's Sotoba Komachi, Birds of Sorrow & Atsumori (ca. 1380s)
Motoori Norinaga,
“A Small Boat Punting Through the Reeds,”
“My Personal View of Poetry,” and
“The Tale of Genji, A Small Jeweled Comb"
1780s-1801 CE
Confucian Views of Literature
Selections from
Yamazaki Ansai,
Ando Tameakira,
Ito Jinsai,
Ito Togai, and
Ogyu Sorai
Haiku by Basho
Chikamatsu,
"Art of the Puppet Stage"
"The Love Suicides at Sonezaki"
"The Drum of the Waves of Horikawa"
Ito Jinsai
Yamazaki Ansai
Ogyu Sorai
Mid 1600s to Mid 1700s
1644-1694 CE
1653 - 1725 CE
500,000/400,000 BC
6,000/5,000 BC
1,000 BC
Paleolithic Age
began around 400,000~500,000 BC
cave dwellings
pre-agricultural economy
Neolithic Age
began 5,000 ~ 6,000 BC
self sufficient clan community
religious beliefs in animism/shamansism
Bronze Age
began 1,000 BC - to 400 BC
highly stratified society
dolmens and bronze weapons
rice cultivation
One of over thirty thousands of dolmens in Korea

Blue Dragon
White Tiger
Red Phoenix
Black Tortoise

2007 Korean TV drama based on the foundation myths of Tan’gun and King Kwanggaet’o, the legendary expansionist king of Koguryo
The Legend
or the Story of the Great King and the Four Gods

400 BC
300 BC
200 BC
100 BC

confederated kingdoms
Chinese iron culture +
Scytho-Siberian bronze culture

Old Choson (Kochoson/ Choson)
Contested origin and territorial boundaries
400 BC: Developed into a confederated kingdom
Claimed to be succeeded by later states: Koryŏ, Chosŏn, and North and South Korea

Image of the legendary king from the Sajik Park of Chongno, Seoul

The Mausoleum of King Tan’gun “Reconstructed” in Pyongyang, 1993

Iron Age (began 400 BC)
King Chun deposed by Wiman, a refugee from China
Wiman Chosŏn fell to Han China and four commandaries established in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
194-180 BC
108 BC
Tan’gun Wanggŏm
300 AD
500 AD
900 AD
700 AD
100 AD


Koguryŏ
(37 BC?~668 AD)
Three Kingdoms/Unified Silla
Koguryo 37 BC - 668 AD
Silla 57 BC - 935 AD
Kaya 42 BC - 562 AD
Paekche 18 BC - 660 AD
Origin: Founded by Chumong (King Tongmyŏng) from Puyŏ between the Yalu River and the T’ung-chia River basin (north of the current DPRK border with China)

Territory: conquered Puyŏ, Okcho, Ye, and two Han commadaries (Lo-lang and Xuantu), expanding deep into Eastern Manchuria

Relations with neighboring countries:
Military conflicts with Han, Sui, and Tang.
Strategic alliance with Northern and Southern Dynasties of China, Silla, Peakchae, and Turks.

Chinese Cultural Influences:
In 372, King Sosurim (371-384) adopted Buddhism as a state religion and established T’aehak, the first Confucian academy in Korea.
Adoption of Chinese Characters
Compilation of National History

Royal emissaries from Koguryŏ, Paekche, and Silla
from a documentary painting “Royal Banquet,” Tang 7CE

The Ch’ ŏmsŏngdae observatory
in Kyungju

Silla
Society and Culture
Centralized aristocratic state:
the Hwabaek (Council of Nobles) institution
Silla village registers (changjŏk): detailed records of villages (size of the land, census by gender and age, kinds and number of slaves, trees, domestic animals)

Rigid Social Hierarchy: (cf. Chang Pogo’s rise)
the bone-rank system + slavery.

Economic Prosperity: maritime trade and agriculture
Queen Sŏndŏk, 2009 Korean TV Drama


“not a single thatched roof house within Kyungju’s walls, while the never-sending sounds of music and song filled the streets night and day”—from Tang’s official history

“The customs of this society have degenerated day by day owing to the competition among the people for luxuries and alien commodities, because they detest local products”—from “King Hungdok’s edict,” 9 CE, in Samguk sagi
Martyr Yi Ch’adon’s memorial, 818 AD

Introduction:
4 CE (Koguryŏ, Paekchae) ~ 6 CE (Silla)

Significance:
justified the social hierarchy through the concept of karma and rebirth
created a spiritual unity in the nation
allowed the Koreans to participate in a sophisticated cosmopolitan culture
stimulated the development of arts and architecture

Characteristics:
Syncretic: merged with Taoism, Shamanism, and Confucianism
State Buddhism (Hoguk pulgyo)
Buddhism
in the Three Kingdom Period
1368~1644
Chosŏn’s foreign relations
Sadae (Serving the Great)

1644~1912
Ming
Ch'ing
■ Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC) left writings that advocated the ideal of a civil monarchy led by a sage king and supported by scholar-officials. His writings became a basis of Confucianism, a political, social, ethical, and philosophical system of thought.
China, 500 BC, warring states

■ Chu Hsi (1130-1200) in Song Dynasty developed Neo-confucianism, a metaphysical reinterpretation of Confucianism that incorporated Taoist and Buddhist cosmology. It is in this synthetic, spiritually reinforced version that Confucianism became more than principles of administration and predominated in the intellectual and cultural life of East Asia until the 19th century.

Origins of Confucianism

Kitabatake Chikafusa
Jinnō Shōtōki (1339)
221 BCE - 206 BCE
Qin Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
700 CE
600 CE
500 CE
400 CE
300 CE
200 CE
100 CE
0 CE
100 BCE
200 BCE
400 BCE
1600 BCE - 1046 BCE
500 BCE
600 BCE
700 BCE
900 BCE
900 BCE
300 BCE
1000 BCE
Shang Dynasty
1045 BCE - 256 BCE
206 BCE - 220 CE
Han Dynasty
479 BCE - 221 BCE
Warring States Period
722 BCE - 479 BCE
Spring and Autumn Period
Confucius
551-479 BCE
Mencius
372-289 BCE
Xunzi
312-230 BCE
Shen Buhai
351-337 BCE
Laozi
6th Century BCE
Zhuangzi
4th Century BCE
Amaterasu
China
Japan
Korea
Classic of Odes (The Book of Songs, Shijing)
first collection of Chinese poem
from 1600-600BCE (Early Zhou Dynasty)
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