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Wilderness First Aid
Transcript of Wilderness First Aid
of Wilderness Medicine What is the main difference between
regular first aid and wilderness first aid? Generic Assessment Risk:Benefit Ratio Field Fix or Evacuation? no ambulances!
The consideration of whether a particular
approach, is worth the risk to the patient as
compared with possible benefits if the action
is successful. serious vs. non serious
improving vs. getting worse when you wander out into the wilderness
medical assistance is either
hours away or not accessible an example:
medically treating or
evacuating an injured person -risk level assessed
-benefit level assessed
-decision made dependent on
the ratio Activity: Critical Body Systems Circulatory -blood flow through the body
-Worry about: Bleeding, Pulse Respiratory -air flow to and from the lungs
-Vital Signs toWorry About: Airway, Breathing Nervous -coordinates voluntary and
involuntary action through
nerve stimuli going in and out of the brain
-Worry about: AVPU (Alert, Voice, Pain,
Unresponsive), Spine Knowing this will help us determine whether
patient needs to be evacuated. BIG NET You must consider all possible problems and scenarios
when initially assessing a patient.
Casting the BIG NET avoids the
oversight caused by "puddle vision"
(focus on one sign, symptom or puddle of blood) Oxygenation and Perfusion All living tissue must be continuously
perfused with oxygenated blood to
function and survive oxygenation:
to the blood cells Perfusion:
to the body cells Compensation The Nervous System is responsible for maintaining the circulatory (perfusion) and respiratory (oxygenation) systems How? Give an example of how the nervous system
(the brain) compensates for effects of exercise,
environment, injury and other factors. usually impaired in first aid situations General Principles Cont'd Signs of Impaired
Blood Flow Swelling
-accumulation of excess fluid Ischemia
-inadequate perfusion Obstruction
-drainage blocked Infarction
-tissue death Infection
-bacteria growth Pressure
-high volumes in a
restricted area What is ideal becomes
what is real! The Evolutionary Onion Mental Status and level of conciousness There are many
of the brain When oxygenation and
perfusion is affected, the brain's
layers become affected from
the outside in inner layers:
problem solving SOAP NOTES It’s essentially a standardized way to store medical information, which can assist your patient assessment, decision making and treatment in a wilderness medical emergency. Subjective: Information about the subject (patient). Items like age, name, etc. along with “subjective” information that someone tells you, e.g. “I have been out in the wind for three hours and I am feeling really cold.”
Objective: Information that you gain with your own observations, e.g. altered level on responsiveness, shivering, vital signs, etc.
Assessment: What you think is wrong with the patient - “the patient has mild hypothermia.”
Plan: What you are going to do about it - “replace wet clothes with dry, provide insulation, provide sugar to fuel shivering.” field fix or evacuate? Assess the risks/benefits and
general severity.... Activity.. Examples? Pulse
L-Last Ins and Outs