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Copy of Infection Control

Jazmne Bruce Stephanie Dollison Ana Gonzalez
by

Amy Huff

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Infection Control

Help prevent germs!
Chain of Infection
Infectious Agent
*Saliva
How germs leave the body
*Direct physical contact
*Respiratory droplet
*Stool (fecal-oral route)
*Contact with blood/body fluids
*Indirect contact
*Needle stick injury
*Ingestion of contaminated food/water
*Contaminated dust particles
*Contaminated objects
*Insects/animals
How germs enter the body
*Inhaling
*Ingestion (eating/drinking)
*Sexual contact
*Open wounds
*punctures
Means of Transmission
Infection Prevention
By:
Amy Huff, RN
Infection Preventionist
It's all about stopping the spread of contagious illness.
What is Infection Prevention and Control about?
Occurs when there is no direct human-to-human contact. Such as contact with mosquitoes, flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rodents, or pets.


*Touching
Reservoir (Host)
*Humans
* inanimate objects (especially high-touch surfaces)
*Contaminated food/water
*Insects
*animals
*soil
So be like a PDI Agent And.....
Any Questions?



How can this be done?

By precautions, surveillance, and education
Infection Control
is
EVERYONE's business!
Means of Transmission:
Direct (person-to-person) Contact
Means of Transmission: Indirect
Infection Control is all about
Breaking
t
h
e

c
h
a
i
n
*kissing
what do you think of when you hear the word "KISS"?
Portal of Entry
Susceptible Host
Person who cannot fight infection
Infants with poorly developed immune systems
Elderly with deteriorating immune systems ("immunosenescence")
People with inadequate immune systems ("immunocompromised" people)
"Pathogens"
Viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites
(Where the germs are harbored)
Hand Hygiene
Alcohol-Based Hand Rub (ABHR)
Apply product to the palm of one hand
Rub hands together
Continue to rub over all surfaces of hands, fingers, wrists until hands are dry

Hand Washing
Wet hands with water and apply soap
Rub hands together to create lather
Continue to rub over all surfaces of hands and fingers for at least 20 seconds (sing "Happy Birthday" song twice)
Scrub fingernails against palms (this is separate from the 20 seconds!)
Rinse hands
Dry hands
Using a clean paper towel, turn off faucet

Hand hygiene is the MOST EFFECTIVE WAY to prevent the spread of disease.
influenza
Blood-Borne Pathogens
Clostridium Difficile
(C. Diff.)
Contact Precautions
Standard Precautions
Droplet Precautions
lice
Bedbugs
scabies
MDRO
Whenever visibly soiled*
Before & after assisting someone with personal care
Before & after assisting someone with meals
After blowing/wiping your nose
After handling dirty or used linens or clothing
After touching any surface someone with an infection may have touched
Before & after contact with a resident's intact skin
*Sneezing
*urine
*Blood
*stool
*coughing
(how germs are spread)
Method of preventing/controlling the spread of germs.
Treats everyone as potentially infectious.
No signs posted, as these precautions are in place for
every resident, regardless of status.
Includes the following components:

Hand Hygiene
Respiratory Hygiene
Gloves
Masks, eye protection
Gowns
Resident Care equipment
Linens
Safe Injection Practices
Resident Placement
Respiratory Hygiene
gloves
masks
gowns
Linens
Safe Injection Practices
Resident Placement
Worn if anticipating contact with blood, body fluids, mucous membranes, non-intact skin (rashes!), or any potentially infectious material or ANY ITEM contaminated with the above.
DO NOT RE-USE GLOVES!!
Change gloves to prevent contamination and between tasks and perform hand hygiene!
After using, remove promptly and perform hand hygiene!!
When should hands be cleaned?
After contact with a resident's mucous membranes or body fluids
After handling soiled or used linens, dressings, bedpans, catheters, and urinals
After handling soiled equipment or utensils
After removing gloves or other Personal Protective Equipemnt (PPE)
After contact with a resident with diarrhea
Before & after assisting someone with toileting
Before & after eating or handling food

Now THAT's what I call a masked man!!
Standard Precautions
shingles
Norovirus
TB
Employee illness
Worn when potential for exposure to
splashes or sprays of body fluids or secretions. Eye protection (goggles) are also available in the janitor closets if needed.
Worn to protect skin/clothing from contamination.
Factors considered when determining room placement include resident's health status and contagiousness (ability to control secretions, etc.) as well as that of room mate.
NEVER re-cap a dirty needle.
Do not point toward any part of the body.
Placed used needles immediately in sharps containers.
Use engineered safety device to keep everyone safe.

Clean linen must be transported and distributed in such a way as to prevent contamination. (Also, must be kept COVERED.)
Soiled linen must be transported in such a way as to prevent contamination of the environment. Why???

Any further questions about why to avoid carrying linens next to your body?
Resident Care Equipment
CLEAN between residents
"If it's wet and it's not yours, don't touch it!"
Used to be called "isolation". Includes STANDARD plus...
Used to be called "isolation". Includes STANDARD plus...
Outbreaks
During times of contagious illnesses, further measures may be put in place by the Infection Preventionist with guidance from the Medical Director and the Health Department such as:
discouraging visitation
restricting visitation
prohibiting admissions
canceling all group meals/activities.
Resident must stay in room if:
Has a fever >100.0
Has had Nausea, Vomiting, or Diarrhea
Has uncontrollable cough
Has wound drainage that cannot be contained

Resident to be kept in room until symptoms have resolved for 24 hours.
These are germs that are transmitted by contact with an infected person's blood. Examples include HIV and Hepatitis.
If an exposure to blood occurs, the area should be irrigated (washed) immediately and the incident must be reported for follow-up (OSHA regulation).
Facility nurses have access to the Instruction Clipboard hanging in the Infection Preventionist's office.
This bacteria can form toxins in your GI tract, leading to diarrhea and even more severe conditions
It is difficult to kill because it forms protective spores
It can live on surfaces a long time.
Bleach-based cleaners must be used.
ABHR is ineffective; soap-and-water hand hygiene is the only way to remove it.
Can hibernate in a person's body until their own bacteria can't keep it controlled.
Contact with the spores causes transmission.

Caused by a small bacteria, it usually attacks the lungs and causes respiratory symptoms, though it can occur in other parts of the body.
Considered highly contagious, & the germ can remain suspended in the air for a very long time.
Symptoms include fever, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, coughing up blood.
Treatment is available. Testing is mandatory.
Must be placed under airborne precautions (at hospital).
If you every had chicken pox, you may eventually get shingles. The pox virus lies dormant in your body after infection and emerges later to cause shingles.
You cannot contract shingles from someone with shingles.
You may get chicken pox from someone with shingles!
Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms are a result of over-use of antibiotics.
Some examples are MRSA, CRE, CRKP, and VRE.
They are dangerous because they are difficult to treat.

Like C. Diff, Norovirus attacks the GI system.
It causes Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, and abdominal cramping.
It is very contagious, spread by contact with the virus particle.
Bleach-based cleaners must be used.
Microscopic mites that burrow under the skin, feeding off the human host, and laying eggs.
These are small insects that feed off human blood!
Adults resemble sesame seeds.
Nits (eggs) resemble poppy seeds.
Easy to identify.
Moderately difficult to treat.
You must call in if you have:
fever + cough
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Exposed rash, open area

You must report (even if occurred while you were off-duty):
Jaundice
Hospitalization from febrile or other contagious illness
Vomiting, diarrhea
long-lasting illnesses
Two or more residents ill with same symptoms
ONE positive case of Influenza
Other Immunizations
Employees are responsible to keep routine immunization up to date.
(Tetanus, Pertussis, etc.)

"He that hath clean hands shall be stronger and stronger."
Job 17:9
Portal of Exit
*Also occurs with contact with inanimate objects. Touching any object a sick person has touched (especially before touching eyes, nose, or mouth) spreads germs.
Potential exposure to blood-borne pathogen?
Next meal? Or...
YOU decide!!
the spread of infections
Whooo-Whoo Whose job is it?
Inanimate Objects
Frequently-touched surfaces such as light switches, telephone receivers/buttons, computer keyboards, doorknobs, etc. can harbor dangerous germs!
Can you think of others??
Basic infection control principle:
Think: BARRIER
Again, think: BARRIER
Another BARRIER
BARRIER!!!!
Basic Infection Control Principle:
No tube, line, contagious disease, or non-intact skin in with a tube, line, contagious disease, or non-intact skin
Basic Infection Control Principle:
If the resident is "dripping" down the hallway, must stay in room!
diarrhea
draining wounds
coughing
vomiting
Re-name Chicken Pox!
Contact Precautions
Droplet Precautions
Diagnosis/Treatment
Policies
Sanitation
Hand Hygiene
Control of aerosols and splatter
standard and enhanced precautions
disinfection
hand hygiene
First aid
Personal Hygiene
hand hygiene
hand hygiene
Immunization
optimizing health
employee health
resident care
Report to Nurse before entering
Report to Nurse before entering
And now it's time for a game called,
This sign indicates good news:
This sign indicates bad news:
"Good News/Bad News"!
They are difficult to identify.
They are easily treated.
Fairly easy to identify
VERY difficult to treat!
(unusual)
Vaccination is mandatory:
All employees must receive a 'flu shot' annually (no cost)
Employees who must decline- such as for medical reasons- must sign a statement of declination AND must wear a mask while working during Influenza season (may remove on break).
Influenza season is defined as October 1-March 31 AND whenever influenza is circulating in the community or in the facility.

Triangle of evaluating training
Outcome
Effectiveness
Efficiency
Did the employee learn?
What did you want them to learn?
How do you measure?
Is the information applied in the employee's performance?
Manpower hours + $$
Full transcript