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Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Transcript of Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Descartes 1. Before the 1500s, who and what were the final authorities with regard to most knowledge?
2. How did the heliocentric theory of the universe differ from the geocentric theory?
3. What are the main steps of the Scientific Method? Polish cleric and astronomer Sun centered theory of the universe Did not publish his findings until 1543, the last year of his life, because it contradicted popular religious views of the time On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies Copernicus Tycho Brahe Danish astronomer Recorded movements of the planets and collected data that would be used by future scientists Johannes Kepler Took Brahe's data and found that certain mathmatical laws govern planetary motion Planets revolve in elliptical orbits instead of circles Galileo Galilei Italian Built a telescope after learning about a Dutch creation that used lenses to see far off objects Starry Messenger Jupiter had four moons
Sun had dark spots
Earth's moon was rough
Laws of motion
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Supported the Copernicun model Pope summoned him to stand trial before the Inquisition Under the threat of torture, he recanted his beliefs Lived under house arrest until his death In 1992, the Catholic Church recognized that he was correct A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas Hypothesis Experiment Analyze and Interpret Data Conclussion Observation Sir Francis Bacon English statesman and writer
Attacked medieval scholars for relying too heavily on the conclussions of Aristotle
Urged scientists experiment and draw conclussions
Empiricism (aka the experimental method) Rene Descartes Developed analytical geometry
Urged scientists to use math and logic
Everything should be doubted until it can be proved "I think, therefore I am" Studied mathematics and physics at Cambridge University Law of Universal Gravitation Thought that the same force ruled motion of all matter on earth and in space Every object in the universe attracts every other object The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Described the universe as a giant clock Scientific Instruments Invented the 1st microscope Zacharias Janssen Evangelista Torricelli Developed the 1st mercury barometer Gabriel Fahrenheit Made the first thermometer to use mercury in glass Showed water freezing at 32 degrees Anders Celsius Created another scale for measuring temperature Showed water freezing at 0 degrees Medicine and the Human Body Disected human corpses and published findings Edward Jenner Introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox Was the first vaccine ever created! Discovery In Chemistry Founder of modern chemistry Boyle's Law Explains how the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other Rembrandt Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulip Copernicus
Torricelli Andreas Vesalius Robert Boyle The Enlightenment Social critics of the 17th century Applied reason to all aspects of life Philosophes Core Beliefs Locke Montesquieu Voltaire Beccaria Hobbes Wollstonecraft Major Ideas Of The Enlightenment Salons "Life, Liberty, and Property" Natural Rights Two Treaties On Government Purpose of government was to protect these rights Tabula Rasa The Spirit Of The Laws Separation of Power Judicial Executive Legislative Checks and Balances Rousseau The Social Contract People are born good General Will but society, with its unequal distribution of wealth, cause problems Leviathan Favored an absolute government Balance human interests and desires with their rights of life and property A Vindication Of The Rights of Women Free Will Divine Right Republic Candide Every man is guilty of all the good he didn’t do. God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. Love truth and pardon error. Judge of a man by his questions rather than by his answers. Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue that makes the difference. Prejudice is opinion without judgment. The way to become boring is to say everything. I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. Salonnieres Madame Geoffrin Madame
Suzanne Necker Social Contract Agreement by which people create a government Used satire to target the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government Freedom of religion and speech "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains" Laws exist to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes Right to a speedy trial
Freedom from torture
Degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of a crime Disagreed with Rousseau that women's education should be secondary to men's Urged women to enter male-dominated fields The Encyclopedia Diderot 1751
Leading scholars contributed essays and articles
Angered both the French government and the Catholic Church
Neoclassical 1600 & early 1700s Baroque Late 1700s Borrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome ART Music Johann Sebastian Bach George Friedrich Handel Clasical Hayden Wofgang Amadeus Mozart Ludwig van Beethoven Enlightenment
Natural Rights Madame Geoffrin
Enlightenment 1. Which impact of the Enlightenment do you consider the most important?
2. What are the natural rights with which people are born, according to John Locke?
3. What was the legacy of the Enlightenment?
4. Explain the following: Power should be a check to power.
5. What are some similarities or differences between the Enlightenment philosophes of the era?