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Gemba Walks

Leaders can build working relationships while improving processes. This outlines the application of the TWI skills to solve problems and improve processes.

Mark Warren

on 12 June 2017

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Transcript of Gemba Walks

Gemba Walks
Start by understanding your primary objective:
The TWI skills provided a structured method of problem solving and a framework to implement continuous improvement
Coaching Action Sheet
Coaching Action Sheet
Leaders Build Relationships by Coaching
Gemba Walks are not Industrial Tourism
They started as coaching exercises between the manager and the supervisor
A Coordinator would teach the TWI patterns to the manager and show the manager how to coach the supervisor on using the TWI skills.
Coaching the patterns starts at the top
Coaching the patterns cascades down as information flows up
What the coaching looks like in a mature system is different from its starting point
The role of the leader changes as the production system develops
It's not about 'looking lean'
or offering 'solutions'.
Taiichi Ohno, the father of The Toyota Production System, had the objective of creating FLOW
How to Train
Improve Process
People Problems
Job Instruction
Job Relations
Job Methods
TWI = Three independent programs
To improve their usefulness, they must work together.
The leaders must coach how to do this...
"No problem, is a problem..."
The first hurdle is "Learning to See" problems
Waste = a symptom of disruption to FLOW
It is a "Learning to See" exercise
Leaders Learn so they can Teach Others
On ranking your problems...
Effective leaders fix what matters most... FIRST
A Heat Map is an effective tool for drilling down to define the problem/s that are most impacting your morale, quality, cost, or productivity.
Ohno used his "Seven Wastes" list to help people learn to see the symptoms of disruption to flow.
It is the starting point to understanding why...
Operators are Trained
Operators discover problems...
More problems than can be immediately addressed...
Create a "Problem Parking Lot" for known problems.
Leaders and operators rank the problems based on impact to the group. (Safety is always first.)
The top problems are moved each week to open spots on the "Coaching Action Sheet".
page 1
page 2
Yellow Card
Discovery Process
Each problem listed on the Coaching Action Sheet has a fact finding stage to determine what the best next steps should be...
Problem Worksheet
Create a sheet for each problem.
To validate your facts, use the Root Cause / Impact Analysis sheet.
Root Cause / Impact Analysis
Advanced version of 5-Whys
Validate each answer before asking the next question.
Assume each answer is a GUESS until it can be observed and measured.
Get validated FACTS or agreement of 3+ experts (OPINION) before asking the next set of questions.
The stopping point is a Process Root Cause.
Next look for the System Root Cause that allowed the error to exist or move forward.
Define what might happen if you do not address the problem. This helps you to rank the importance of solving the problem.
Classify Next Step:
Do you have a process?
Starter Questions
(A Job Breakdown Sheet, not a Standard Operating Procedure or Instruction sheet that looks like an encyclopedia entry.)
Blue Card
Do you follow the process?
Yellow Card
Green Card
(Understand Why Not)
Is the process capable?
(Is the job difficult or unpleasant to do? Does it disrupt the smooth flow of production?)
(Improve the process)
(Understand Why the Problem was Listed)
Do you need to establish a standard process?
Do you need to improve the process?
Blue Card
Green Card
1943 version
Problem Worksheet hints:

: Start with your best description of the problem. Make sure it is a problem description, not a solution.
The Problem Statement can change as you get more facts and understand the root cause.
The questions "
is affected by this problem?" and "
is affected by this problem?" are intended to help you consider all that will be impacted by the possible solutions and look more broadly for facts.
: Make sure you know what you want to accomplish when you solve the problem.
Use best known industry standard as a starting objective; close the gap, then improve beyond the current best solution.
: A fact is information that can be measured and reproduced at will. Assume all first answers are a Guess. Seek to validate where possible; accept Opinions only when you are unable to measure or reproduce the problem.
On the back of the Problem Worksheet are more hints.
What should be done next?
Job Breakdown Sheet - JBS
Respect their capacity to solve their own problems.
(Standardize the Process)
Skill Analysis Sheet
For the job that you will be developing or improving a Job Breakdown on; start with a review of the skill level of current people doing the job.

The highest skilled people can help to develop the Job Breakdown and the lower skilled people will be placed on the Training List.
Start building a Job Breakdown:
List each Important Step.
An Important Step is a logical sequence that advances the work.
Describe is simply: Two words are usually sufficient = Action + Object
After you have listed the Important Steps while doing or observing the job, start listing the Key Points.
List Key Points for Important Steps.
An Important Step does not always have a Key Point.
An Important Step can have several Key Points.
A Key Point is a detail that can 'make or break' the job, make the job easier, or be a safety detail.
Having 5 or more key points usually indicates you need to create a separate Job Breakdown for this Important Step.
Each Key Point must have a Reason Why.
Complete Reasons Why for each Key Point.
List Reason Why for each Key Point.
"Dry Run"
Job Breakdown Sheet Development Team - 3 people optimal
Three People - one to be the trainer, one to be the learner and one to be the auditor.
Practice using the Job Breakdown to deliver the training.
After each practice run, discuss if improvements are needed.
Note the preparation needed for delivery of training (materials, tools, supplies, special preparation to get ready to teach, etc.)
Let each person take a turn in each role until there are no more changes to the Job Breakdown Sheet.
The practice with skilled operators helps the trainer make a more professional impression on the new learners.
Choosing a Coaching Unit
A Coaching Unit should take less than 3 minutes to deliver.
Since the trainer will be repeating the job several times and the learner will practice several times, you may want to deliver training in smaller units than the original Job Breakdown Sheet.
The best time to decide what an appropriate Coaching Unit should be is during your practice 'Dry Runs'.
1 Coaching Unit
1 Coaching Unit
Job Instruction Training
Define your training objective:
Who is to be trained:
What skill is to be trained:
When the training is to be completed:
(and the trainer, if it is not you)
Get Ready Steps:
Make sure you have the latest version of the Job Breakdown Sheet.

Go to the workplace are where you are going to deliver the training to prepare:
Have the right equipment, tools, materials, and supplies. (Enough for completing the training - you do not want to run out of any materials during the training.)
Everything needed to instruct.
Arrange the work area just as in actual working conditions.
(How the employee is expected to keep it.)
Step 1 - Prepare the Learner
Step 2 - Present the Operation
Step 3 - Try Out Performance
Step 4 - Follow Up
Step 1
Step 3
Step 4
Step 2
More Information for Trainers
Put the person at ease.

State the job.

Find out what the person already knows.

Get the person interested in learning the job.

Put the person in the correct position.
(Where they can really see what you are showing and telling them.)
Tell, show and illustrate - one Important Step at a time.

Do it again - stress Key Points and Reasons Why.

Instruct clearly, completely, and patiently; giving no more than they can master at one time.
Have the person do the job - stating the Important Steps - correct for errors.

Have the person do the job again - explaining the Key Points and Reasons Why.

Make sure the person understands.

Continue until YOU know THEY know.
Put the person on their own.

Designate to whom they will go to for help.

Check frequently.

Encourage questions.

Taper off extra coaching and close follow up.
Green Card - Process Improvement
Job Methods
The Challenge Sheet is a FACT FINDING process to help you develop better ideas.
Step 1: Reviewing the Job Activities to select for potential improvements.
Step 2: Challenging the Job Activity to develop ideas for potential improvements.
Green Card - Experiments
Job Methods
Step 3: Record Experiments.
Experiment Record
Step 4: Compare Experiment Result to Existing Process.
Step 5: Propose New Process
Tell me more...
Your training outline
Blue Card - Training
Blue Card - Job Breakdown
Green Card - Challenge + Ideas
Green Card - Experiments
Create or update the Job Breakdown sheet (JBS)
Before you start working on the Job Breakdown Sheet (JBS), select two people that are the most knowledgeable about the job to help you.
Job Methods Activity Sheet
This is the starting point for defining the activities and the issues you have observed. The 'snags and difficulties' are details that you might choose to improve.
Identify the Activities that most need Improvement and use the Challenge Sheet to develop potential solutions.
Job Methods Challenge Sheet
The Question Sequence is Important:
is it necessary?
is its purpose?
If you cannot prove it is necessary, eliminate the task.
When you understand the purpose, you can better define a 'best way'
Don't Reinvent the Wheel
In larger organizations, this problem or a similar one may already have been solved... look around.

The next search should be external. Look for the known best solutions. There are a limited number of ways to solve a problem.
Start with an internet search.
Closing the Gap with best known solution is the fastest improvement path.
If you are the industry leader with the best current solution that is known, then your experiments will be in uncharted territory.
Each possible solution will need to be tested to validate the idea.
You may have more than one possible solution and testing them will determine the most suitable one to implement, if it is better than the current process
The results of an experiment may indicate that further development of the idea is needed.
The experiment may be a success in the department, make sure you understand the impact on the processes downstream, if any.
Define the results you expect. Then compare to actual results. Learn from your experiments!
Job Methods Comparison Worksheet
Now is the time to consider using 5-S to improve the process
The Sustaining step is the responsibility of the Leader.
Tt is a measure of the effectiveness of your coaching of the Improvement Patterns.
Known Solutions
Invention Required
(Copy Best Practice)
This sheet is for assisting you to decide whether the Proposed Method is an improvement over the Present Method.
Are there fewer steps?

Have you improved the yield?

Is the job easier to do?

Does it take less time?

Do you better match adjacent steps?

Have you reduced the transport required?

Have you reduced the storage needed?

Have you improved quality?

Have you reduced buffers required?

Is the job safer?

Do you need to improve the job further?

Does a new layout take less space?
Should you move forward and implement the Proposed Method?
Job Methods Proposal
This is to help you sell your new proposal
You should not need to sell the new ideas to your teammates if you involved them in the development of the new process.
Each industry has their own level of approvals required. Make a checklist of standard approvals or regulations that must be met for your industry. This can streamline the proposal approval process in your organization.
At the heart of every Organization is a Production system...
its ability to deliver the product or service that sustains the organization
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