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Psychology In Everyday Life Chapter 3

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Janet Neyer

on 24 September 2014

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Transcript of Psychology In Everyday Life Chapter 3

Moro (aka startle)
Harry Harlow
contact comfort
Diana Baumrind
Stage theories
Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to one)
Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt (1-3 years)
Inititative vs. Guilt (3-5 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority (7-12 years - elementary school)
Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 years adolescence)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20s to early 40s)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (40s to 60s)
Integrity vs. Despair (60+)
Concrete Operations
Formal Operations

object permanence
Piaget underestimated children.
Stages of cognitive development are not as rigid as Piaget thought.
Carol Gilligan
criticizes Kohlberg's model because of its focus on boys
Gilligan thought...
Boys have a more absolute view of what is moral; girls tend to look at the situation.
However, later researchers think that regardless of gender, people's moral reasoning is inconsistent across situations.
gender typing
Chapter 3:

A deep emotional bond that an infant
develops with its primary caretaker
Mary Ainsworth
secure attachment
insecure attachment
- avoidance
insecure attachment
- anxiety
Critical Periods
Many elements of maturation are based on critical periods: exposure is needed during a certain age range for proper development
Language Acquisition Device: a feature of the human brain that allows young children to learn a language if others model it for them.
BUT children must be exposed to language before the age of 12 (the critical period) if they are to learn it .
My dad gave me one dollar bill
'Cause I'm his smartest son,
And I swapped it for two shiny quarters
'Cause two is more than one!

And then I took the quarters
And traded them to Lou
For three dimes -- I guess he don't know
That three is more than two!

Just then, along came old blind Bates
And just 'cause he can't see
He gave me four nickels for my three dimes,
And four is more than three!

And I took the nickels to Hiram Coombs
Down at the seed-feed store,
And the fool gave me five pennies for them,
And five is more than four!

And then I went and showed my dad,
And he got red in the cheeks
And closed his eyes and shook his head--
Too proud of me to speak!
- Shel Silverstein
Evaluating Piaget...
Stage changes are neither as exact as Piaget believed.
Children sometimes understand more than Piaget believed.
Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought.
Cognitive development depends on the child’s education and culture
Piaget overestimated the cognitive skills of many adults.
Preconventional Level
“I do the right thing because I don’t want to get punished.”
Moral reasoning is self-centered; what is “right” is what feels good.
Conventional Level
“I do the right thing because I want to conform to the group.”
Moral reasoning is based on an understanding of society’s laws and justice.
Postconventional Level
“I do the right thing because my conscience tells me to.”
Moral reasoning is based on an understanding of universal human rights, even at personal sacrifice.
Read the dilemma aloud.
Read and discuss the interview questions (but do not answer them in writing!).
On one sheet of paper for your group, explain how each level (preconventional, conventional or postconventional) would respond to the dilemma.
Evaluating Kohlberg...
Tends to overlook educational and cultural influences (or some cultural differences not reflected in this theory)
Moral reasoning is often inconsistent across situations
Connection between moral reasoning and moral action is often indirect
gender identity
Process by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture.
The fundamental sense of being male or female; it is independent of whether the person conforms to social and cultural rules of gender.
Add up circles. Divide by 20.
Add up squares. Divide by 20.
The circles represent your feminine score.
The squares represent masculine score.
Subtract masculine score from feminine score (circles – squares = _____).
Multiply by 2.322.
Gender Traits Scores:
Masculine-16 and under
Nearly masculine –15 to –10
Androgynous-9 to +9
Nearly feminine+9 to +15
Feminine+16 and over
Authoritarian Parenting:
A method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct the child’s misbehavior.
These parents are harsh in their discipline and rigid in enforcing rules. They do not make an attempt to understand the child’s point of view.
Authoritative Parenting:
A method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child’s misbehavior.
These parents are nurturing and responsive. When disciplining they are firm, use reason and demand maturity of their children. They likewise understand the child’s perspective.
Harry Harlow at Work
Prenatal Influences
heredity vs. environment
fetal alcohol syndrome
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
In other words, a core personality trait that you are born with
Is it nature or nurture?
The Jims:
separated 37 days after they were born
met for the first time 38 years later
both married women named Linda
then both divorced and married women named Betty
both like math and carpentry in school
both ended up in law enforcement (security guard and sheriff's deputy)
both named their sons James Alan
Nature vs. Nurture:
Is it genes that make us who
we are or environment?
Neurons - require stimulating environments
Language - requires modeling
Vision - requires visual experience
"The maturing brain's rule:
Use it or lose it."
Parenting Styles
Permissive Parents
give in to their children's desires
make few demands
don't punish
(Believe it or not: this is not a good thing!)
Moral Action
Today, we focus on both moral reasoning and moral action.
Identifying with others, being able to feel what they feel
Delayed Gratification
A person's ability to wait to acquire something he or she wants; also called self control or willpower
A predictor of later success in life
The Marshmallow Test (originally done by Walter Mischel, 1972)
Crystallized Intelligence
This is why your grandma knows all the answers on Jeopardy!
accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
increases with age
Fluid Intelligence
This is why it's so hard to teach your grandma new technology!
ability to reason quickly and abstractly
decreases with age
Stages of death and dying (DABDA)
Social Clock
culturally preferred timing of social events like marriage, parenthood, and retirement
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