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Future Perfect & Future Perfect Continuous

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Danny Li

on 14 June 2013

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Transcript of Future Perfect & Future Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect
&
Future Perfect Continuous

Definition
The future perfect is a verb form or construction used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before a time of reference in the future
Form1
Future perfect with "will"
Form2



Examples:

•You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
•Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
•You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future

The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)


Examples:

•I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
•By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.

Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
[will have + past participle]
Examples:

•You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
•Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
•You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning. Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.
Notice in the examples that the reference points (marked in
red
) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses


The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:


You will only have learned a few words.

Will you only have learned a few words?

You are only going to have learned a few words.

Are you only going to have learned a few words?


You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?


Examples:


They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active

The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive

They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active

The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive


The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active

The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive

The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active

The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.
ADVERB PLACEMENT
ACTIVE & PASSIVE
[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]
Future Perfect with "Be Going To"
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.
Examples:
•By next November, I will have received my promotion.
•By the time he
gets
home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
•I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
•Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she
moves
to Beijing?
•Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he
leaves
this afternoon.
•By the time I
finish
this course, I will have taken ten tests.
•How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you
turn
50?

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"

[will have been + present participle]

Examples:

•You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
•Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
•You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"

[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

Examples:
•You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
•Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
•You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
NOTE: Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.


Future Perfect Continuous
USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future



We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous.
Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.

Examples:

•They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas
arrives
.
•She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally
closes
.
•James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he
leaves
for Asia.
•How long will you have been studying when you
graduate
?
•We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we
ge
t to Anchorage.
A: When you
finish
your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
B: No, I will not have been living here that long.
Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in
red
) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.
USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future



Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.

Examples:

•Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
•Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.



If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:

•He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.
•He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.
Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous
REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.

Examples:

•You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim.
Not Correct
•You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim.
Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect .

Examples:

•Ned will have been having his driver's license for over two years.
Not Correct
•Ned will have had his driver's license for over two years.
Correct
Thank you

Exercise time!
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