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Gender Roles - A Cross Cultural Study
Transcript of Gender Roles - A Cross Cultural Study
toys mother vs. father sexual development family structure entrance to public domain support structure Understanding
Norms early learning gender expectations freedom/boundaries interactions identity development breadwinners
care for home
support family/husband Hijra nurturer
"eat and do nothing"
sati ritual - extremes dominant
cares for wife gender amiguous
dress as women
never assume woman's roles
hold separate place in society pink or blue are the most common colors for babies rooms bows, ribbons, overalls, and types of shoes are the most common methods of clothing a child based on sex ritual circumcision and hijra blessings constitute methods by which a child's gender can be influenced What is Gender? the behavioral, cultural, or
psychological traits typically
associated with one sex What are the traits
associated with females? how about those
associated with males? Locations on Timeline
By Culture Nature vs. Nurture Is this how we're born? Or is it affected by environmental
...and beyond Chinese Indian American Chinese culture defines the genders similarly to the U.S. though more emphasis is placed on permanence with extended families included.
Men are often touted as being more desireable. Indian culture defines gender roles differently. With the inclusion of a widely accepted 3rd gender and even a 4th and 5th gender in their vocabulary, though not as widely accepted. Largely due to spiritual practices, emphasizing balance. U.S. culture, although not the least
accepting, stricly defines two genders.
All others are working against "nature"
and their ascribed gender roles assigned
at birth. Chinese culture places a large emphasis on family values and tradition.
Tradition says that there are
only two genders. Gender is often
synonymous with "sex". Indian culture, due to their spirituality
and the emphasis on balance views gender
as being two sides of an equation.
Hijras or others who disaffect from their
ascribed gender, are viewed as being closer
to balance, and therefore respected. U.S. culture has created negative
connotative names for those that
reject their ascribed genders or go
against the definitive factors.
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender
are the most well known examples. Internalization of External
Controls Close knit nuclear family
extended family In China, extended family is the preferred type of family. Emphasis on the grandparents, aunts, uncles, nephews, nieces, etc. In India, extended family is also
more preferred. As a woman who
enters a family is often viewed as a
burden, and someone who must be
cared for. American culture prefers the
nuclear family. Independence being
a large determining factor and one
that remains prevalent throughout
our society. Passing of tradition
Guidance and discipline
Models of control Care of loved ones
Women are weaker
Passing of tradition Ownership of destiny
American dream(nuclear family)
Freedom of thought
Loss of tradition The Media... What message does this ad send? Gender biased advertising is more prevalent in the U.S. and China.
Enhances the gap during developmental years, puberty, and independence. Your Peers what affect do they have? do chinese children react differently to their peers than Indian? Or American?
Findings... When forced to examine it in depth, we are able to pinpoint very nearly where we began to view ourselves as we do today. These gender roles are no longer what they used to be and will continue to change. Remember... Gender is not simply defined by sex
or sexual orientation, but by traits
exhibited by these individuals, as defined
by society Whether ascribed at birth, during our
developmental years, puberty, or discovered
during independence, gender is a malleable
definition that will continue to change for
all of us as time goes by and our external and internal controls vary, regardless of culture. 33% of Chinese
giving their child
a gender neutral
toy to play with the majority
of the time 88% of American families admit to fostering gender within their child during these years 73% of Indian families admit to delegating responsibility for gender determination and discipline to one parent or the other during development depending upon the sex of the child 55% of American and 71% of Chinese families admit to utilizing early learning tools that lean towards one gender or another children in china, india, and america view sexual
development differently The divorce rate in the U.S. is
higher than both China and India combined. 44% of Indian, 62% of American, and 68% of Chinese families say that they would be unhappy if their child ended up working in a job not suitable for their gender.
We'll get more into this later, but gender identity in all three cultures is affected here significantly. Less so in Chinese due to strict upbringings. Gender identity is generally defined by this point in Chinese cultures. However, American and Indian cultures carry alternative pathways for individuals to follow. Where, how, and why an individual functions in the public domain do much to influence their gender identity in American and Indian cultures. Is it a job suitable for a man? A woman? Is it a place suitable for a man/woman?(i.e. outside/inside the home) What kind of discipline have these individuals assigned themselves? Are there consequences for their actions within the immediate family? An example: Think about what someone "coming out of the closet" goes through...