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Instrumental Music of the Baroque Era
Transcript of Instrumental Music of the Baroque Era
sonata da chiesa: church sonata
sonata da camera: chamber sonata
trio sonata Instrumental Music of the Baroque Era Several orchestral instruments were important in Baroque Music The harpsichord provided harmony for most instrumental works. Solo music was also composed for it. Compare the sound of the harpsichord with the more modern piano The flute was similar to the recorder of today.
Trumpets had no valves
Violin strings were made of different materials and the bows were slightly different Some works used an ostinato or ground bass
(a short persistently repeated bass line) In Pachelbel's canon in D the ostinato is presented at the beginning and continues throughout the piece Suites of were common.
They could be for harpsichord alone or
for a group of instruments. Stylized dances were new compositions written to mimic the style of dances popular in a previous time period (In this video, the Hornpipe is over at 3:08, and minuet begins) Hornpipe from Water Music - Handel stylized dances Sonata was an instrumental work for one or two instruments A Sonata de chiesa Sonata de camera serious church sonata chamber sonata
consisted of dance movements Trio Sonata a favorite among many Baroque composers consisted of 4 parts
Those parts were typically
continuo* Sonata movements were often short and alternated between fast and slow *harpsichord plus other bass instruments Instrumental music of this era often used generic titles (concerto, sonata). To tell them apart they are usually identified by an opus number (Op.) Terms to remember: stylized dance music
canon For more information, see textbook glossary or http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opus_number Concerto a contrast between
groups of different sizes Concerto Grosso smaller group tutti larger group Concerto Consists of 3 movements:
fast ritornello most common concerto form main theme alternates with contrasting section concerto grosso performed without a conductor This is a trio sonata for r recorder, violin, and basso continuo
Compare the slow and fast movements of this trio sonata
Notice that the fast movements are not all the same tempo Bach Brandenburg Concerto 5, mvt 3 Program Music instrumental music associated with an idea or story
did not become popular until 19th century The first movement ends at 3:21, but I encourage you to listen to the whole thing. Spring "Allegro-Largo-Allegro" (The Four Seasons) solo concerto Vivaldi Fugue instrumental work (typically for organ) the presents a theme (subject) and a contrasting theme (countersubject) in imitating voices. The subject and countersubject usually have distinctive characteristics. Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 565 Bach Follow along with p.126 or active listening guide Other keyboard forms chorale variation based on a chorale melody, variations are added with each repetion chorale prelude contrapuntal piece for organ based on a chorale melody passacaglia theme stated in the bass and then repeated while new voices add variations of the original melody prelude simple refers to a short piece of instrumental music supplemental listening: Bach's passacaglia in C minor Features of Baroque Music Melody Expressive reciting style (recitative) in vocal music
continuous, spinning quality Rhythm strongly metrical
regular patterns of beats (except recitatives) Textures polyphonic (contrapuntal) and homophonic Harmony tonal (major and minor)
basso continuo in many works Dynamic Levels Loud and soft (little in betweens, no extremes)
terraced dynamics http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/textt/terraceddynamics.html Performance media Accompanied vocal solos and choral pieces
harpsichord and pipe organ
small instrumental ensembles Forms A B (binary)
A B A (ternary)
Fugue Genres Oratorio, Cantata
Sonata, trio sonata
Short organ works Vocal Instrumental D. Scarlatti, Sonata in D minor k 517 D. Scarlatti, Sonata in D minor k 517